Current archaeological evidence indicates that Natives first arrived in North America 40,000 years BCE (Before the Common Era) by crossing a land bridge which had formed between Asia and Alaska during the latest Ice Age. 500 BCE-1000 AD - Natives had settled across most of Canada. Hundreds of tribes had developed, each with its own culture, customs, legends, and character. All of them, however diverse, had named the 4 corners of their country: Denendeh, Us-Qui, Nunavut and Kanata.
Despite an ancient history of their own, Canadian Aboriginal peoples cultures have sometimes been written about as if their history began with the encroachment of Europeans onto the continent. This is because the First Nations, Inuit and Métis written history began with European accounts, as in documentation by trappers, traders, explorers, and missionaries.There are several reports of contact made before Christopher Columbus between the first peoples and those from other continents. The earliest known European explorations in Canada are described in the Icelandic Sagas. According to the sagas, the first European to see Canada was Bjarni Herjólfsson.
Leif Erikson is credited as being the first European to set foot on North America. "land of the flat stones" (possibly Baffin Island ) "land of forests" (possibly Labrador) Vinland Another European explorer was John Cabot. (fishing opportunities) In 1598 marquis de la Roche established a small colony on Sable Island Samuel de Champlain established the first permanent Canadian settlements at Port Royal and Quebec City.
Map of New France made by Samuel de Champlain in 1612 In 1608 Quebec City became the capital of New France In 1610 John Guy settled Cuper's Cove (present-day Cupid's Cove, Newfoundland) first English settlement in Canada.
Despite its problems, New France continued to grow at a slow pace. The Iroquois threat became a great obstacle against New France expansion. The French settlers and Iroquois would fight many battles around the outskirts of New France. The feudal system of landholding, which had long been established in France, was adopted in the colony. In underpopulated New France the habitants had no military duties to perform except their common defense against the Indians.
The French were well established in large parts of Eastern Canada; Britain had control over the Thirteen Colonies to the south. France threatened to control almost half the continent Hudson's Bay Company in New France almost succeeded in driving the English from this part of the continent altogether.
Seven Years' War ( ) Great Upheaval the interests of the British and French in North America ran towards conflict resulting in the outbreak of war in both in Europe and North America. Canada was also an important battlefield in the Seven Years' War, during which Great Britain gained control of Quebec City after the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759, and Montreal in The French turned over all its North American possessions to Britain (Treaty of Paris).
During the American Revolution Loyalists moved to Canada Quebec (1791) French-speaking Lower Canada an anglophone Upper Canada the borders between Canada and the United States were officially declared
July 1, 1867 the British wanted Canada to defend itself; the Maritimes needed railroad connections British-Canadian nationalism sought to unite the lands into one country, dominated by the English language and British culture a desire for the expansion of responsible government and elimination of the legislative deadlock between Upper and Lower Canada, and their replacement with provincial legislatures in a federation. John A. Macdonald became the first prime minister Canada.
On July 1, 1867, with the coming into force of the British North America Act (enacted by the British Parliament), the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia became a federated kingdom in its own right.The term dominion was chosen to indicate Canada's status as a self- governing colony of the British Empire, the first time it was used in reference to a country.
Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada as a province. In the 1960s, a Quiet Revolution took place in Quebec, overthrowing the old establishment which centred on the Catholic Church and modernizing the economy and society. In 1965 Canada adopted the maple leaf flag.
April 17, patriation of the Constitution of Canada. At the same time, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms was added in place of the previous Bill of Rights In 2006, the House of Commons passed a motion recognizing the Québécois as a nation within Canada.