illiterate priests were often immoral secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority Causes of the Reformation
________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Reformation 1. Causes of the Reformation A. secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority B. powerful popes spent money on art and wars C. illiterate priests were often immoral
Babylonian Captivity Great Schism Failure of the Conciliar Movement Renaissance Popes Corrupt Church Practies Benefice System Simony Buying and selling of Ch. Offices Indulgences John Tetzel Payment for remittance of sins New Religious Ideas that Challenged Church -95 Theses- an attack upon -indulgences -Diet of Worms- Luthers Trial -Protected by Frederick of Saxony -Translates Bible into German -Peasants Rebellion -Peasants use Luthers ideas to justify worldly freedom over 100K dead -Augsburg Confession German princes challenge HRE Charles V & confess Lutheran beliefs -Peace of Augsburg (1555) Cuis regio, cuis religio We look first with began with Was influenced by continued with the start of -Lutheranism 1. Justified by faith alone 2. Priesthood of believers 3. Bible as sole authority for Christian living -Calvinism Predestination Godly Rulers Theocracy Geneva, Neth, Scot, Parts of France -Anglicanism Started by Henry VIII Changed religion to obtain divorce Wants an heir Church Catholic says no -Anabaptism Adult Baptism Munster Who started the Reformation Backgroun d or Causes with new ideas about God Responded to Ref. by Catholic Reformation Protertantism Martin Luther The Reformation & Age of Religious Wars -Council of Trent -Pope Paul III & IV -Charles V forces Pope -Inquisition will be strengthened to stamp out heresy -Society of Jesus- St. Ignatias of Loyola forms Jesuit Order -educate Priests and found Universities -jMissionaries -Index of Forbidden Books- Outlaws Protestant books and burns heretical works -Wars to bring Protestant lands back to Church
The Reformation began in _________when _________nailed the ______ on its church door. The Reformation led by Luther spread to the __________ countries of Denmark,__________ and ___________. The Reformation spread to the cantons of __________led by __________in Zurich and __________in Geneva. The Reformation spread to England when ________ broke from the __________ and formed the __________. The Act of __________ made the king head of the church. _____ led the Reformation In Scotland and followed the teachings of Calvin. Calvins Protestantism spread to _________ and the __________ causing religious conflict. French Calvinists were called _________and Dutch Calvinists were called __________. Charles V of the ___________attempted to stop the Reformation by forcing the Pope to call the ___________which helped begi the_ _______________. __________,__________, __________and _________ remained primarily Catholic and supported the Catholic Reformation. Word Bank Holy Roman Empire France Scotland Switzerland Spain Portuagal Wittenburg Norway Scandanavian John Calvin Ulrich Zwingli Martin Luher Henry VII John Knox Council of Trent Huguenots 95 Theses Supremacy Catholic ReformationKey Catholic Catholic Lutheran Lutheran Calvinist Calvinist Anglican Anglican Eastern Orthodox Eastern Orthodox
The Reformation The Reformation destroyed Western Europes religious unity, and involved new ideas about the relationship among God, the individual, and society. Its course was greatly influenced by politics, and led, in most areas, to the subjection of the church to the political rulers.
Early Reformers Earlier threats to the unity of the Church had been made by the works of John Wycliff and John Huss. The abuses of church practices and positions upset many people. Likewise, Christian humanists had been criticizing the abuses. John Hus- burned for heresy John Wycliff
Martin Luther ( ) & the Beginnings Martin Luther was a miners son from Saxony in central Germany. Early in his career he studied law. He underwent a religious experience while traveling, which led him to become an Augustinian friar. Later, he became a professor at the university of Wittenberg, Saxony.
Religious Problems Luther, to his personal distress, could not reconcile the problem of the sinfulness of the individual and the justice of God. How could a sinful person attain the righteousness necessary to obtain salvation? During his studies of the Bible, especially of Romans 1:17, Luther came to believe that personal efforts – good works such as a Christian life and attention to the sacraments of the church – could not earn the sinner salvation.
Justification by Faith According to Luther, only belief and faith in God were necessary to allow a person to obtain salvation. The Bible is the sole authority for Christian living Priesthood of Believers- everyone should be able to read the Bible and minister to others –No need for a priest
Indulgences Indulgences which had originated in connection with the crusades, involved the cancellation of the penalty given by the church to a confessed sinner. Indulgences had long been a means of raising money for Church activities. In 1517, the Pope was building the new cathedral of St. Peter in Rome. The Church had also borrowed money from the Fuggers and needed money to pay off the debt.
Johann Tetzel A Dominican friar, Johann Tetzel was authorized to preach and sell indulgences. Tetzel received large amounts of money from his travels. Luther protested the work of Tetzel to the Pope, to no avail. As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.
Luthers 95 Theses On Oct. 31, 1517, Luther nailed 95 theses, or statements, about indulgences to the door of the Wittenberg Church and challenged the practice of selling indulgences. At this time he was seeking to reform the Church, not divide it. Luther challenged the Church to debate the issue. The Church sent Johann Eck to debate Luther.
Luthers Relations with the Pope and Governments In 1519, Luther debated various criticisms of the Church and was driven to say that only the Bible, not religious traditions or papal statements, could determine correct religious practices and beliefs. In 1521, Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther for his beliefs. In 1521, Luther appeared before the Diet of Worms, but refused to recant his beliefs.
Ulrich Zwingli ( ) Ulrich Zwingli introduced reforming ideas in Zurich in Switzerland. He rejected clerical celibacy, the worship of saints, fasting, transubstantiation, and purgatory. Rejecting ritual and ceremony, Zwingli stripped churches of decorations, such as statues. In 1523, the governing council of the city accepted his beliefs.
Reformation in Switzerland Zurich- center for Protestantism and its spread throughout Switzerland. Zwingli, believied in the union of church and state –required church attendance by all citizens and regulated many aspects of personal behavior – all enforced by courts and a group of informers. Colloquy of Marburg –attempted to reconcileviews of Zwingli and Luther, over the issue of the Eucharist, failed during a meeting in Marburg Castle in Switzerland, divided into many cantons, also divided into Protestants and Catholics camps. Civil War in Switzerland –Zwingli was captured and executed – led to a treaty in which each canton was permitted to determine its own religion.
Anabaptists Anabaptists (derived from a Greek word meaning to baptize again) –people who rejected the validity of child baptism –believed that such children had to be rebaptized when they became adults. The Bible became more available –Translations into various vernaculars led many people to adopt differing interpretations contrary to those of Luther, Zwingli, and the Catholics.
The Swiss Brethren Anabaptists sought to return to the practices of the early Christian church, which was a voluntary association of believers with no connection to the state. Perhaps the first Anabaptists appeared in Zurich in 1525 under the leadership of Conrad Grebel and were called the Swiss Brethren.
The Melchiorites In 1534, Anabaptists called Melchiorites led by Jan Matthys gained political control of the city of Munster in Germany –forced other Protestants and Catholics to convert or leave. Most of the Anabaptists were workers and peasants –followed Old Testament practices, including polygamy, and abolished private property. Combined armies of Protestants and Catholics captured the city and executed the leader in Anabaptism and Munster –became stock words of other Protestants and Catholics about the dangers of letting reforming ideas influence workers and peasants. Anabaptists –adopted pacifism and avoided involvement with the state whenever possible. Today, the Mennonites, founded by Menno Simmons ( ) and the Amish are the descendents of the Anabaptists. Menno Simmons
Calvinism John Calvin ( ) –a Frenchman, arrived in Geneva, a Swiss city-state which had adopted an anti-Catholic position, –in 1536, failed in his first efforts to further the reforms. Calvin returns in 1540 –Geneva became the center of the Reformation. Calvins Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) – a strictly logical analysis of Christianity, had a universal appeal Geographic areas of influence –Switzerland- Calvinists –France- Huguenots –Netherlands/England- Puritains –Scotland- Presbyterian John Calvin
Philosophy of Predestination Calvin brought knowledge of organizing a city from his stay in Strasbourg, which was being led by the reformer Martin Bucer ( ) Calvin differed from Luther as Calvin emphasized the doctrine of predestination (God knew who would obtain salvation, before those people were born) and believed that church and state should be united. As in Zurich, church and city combined to enforce Christian behavior, and Calvinism came to be seen as having a stern morality. Like Zwingli, Calvin rejected most aspects of the medieval churchs practices and sought a simple, unadorned church. Followers of Calvinism became the most militant and uncompromising of all Protestants.
Geneva Geneva became the home to Protestant exiles from England, Scotland, and France –who later returned to their countries with Calvinist ideas. Calvinism ultimately triumphed as the majority religion in Scotland –under the leadership of John Knox ( ), and the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Puritans in England and New England also accepted Calvinism. John Knox
Reform in England England underwent reforms in a pattern differing from the rest of Europe. Personal and political decisions by the rulers determined much of the course of the Reformation.
The Break with the Pope Henry VIII ( ) married Catherine of Aragon, the widow of his older brother. By 1526, Henry became convinced that his inability to produce a legitimate son to inherit his throne was because he had violated Gods commandments, by marrying his brothers wife (Leviticus 18:16, 20:21) Soon Henry fell in love with Anne Boleyn and decided to annul his marriage to Catherine in order to marry Anne. Henry VIII
Pope Clement VII says no! The pope, Clement VII, the authority necessary to issue such an annulment was, after 1527, under the political control of Charles V, Catherines nephew. Efforts to secure the annulment, directed by Cardinal Wolsey ( ) ended in failure and Wolseys disgrace. Thomas Cranmer ( ) named archbishop in 1533, dissolved Henrys marriage, which permitted him to marry Anne Boleyn in January 1533.
Creation of the English Church Henry used Parliament to threaten the pope and eventually to legislate the break with Rome by law. The Act of Annates prevented payments of money to the pope. The Act of Restraint of Appeals forbade appeals to be taken to Rome, which stopped Catherine from appealing her divorce. Cahernine of Aragon
The Act of Supremacy The Act of Supremacy declared Henry, not the pope, as the head of the English Church. Subsequent acts enabled Henry to dissolve the monasteries and to seize their land, which represented perhaps 25% of the land of England. In 1536, Thomas More was executed for rejecting Henrys leadership of the English Church.
Catholicism Under Mary ( ), Henry VIIIs daughter and half- sister of Edward VI, Catholicism was restored and England reunited with the pope. Over 300 people were executed including bishops and Archbishop Cranmer, for refusing to abandon their Protestant beliefs. Numerous Protestants fled to the Continent where they learned of more advanced Protestant beliefs, including Calvinism at Geneva. Bloody Mary Tudor
Anglicanism Under Elizabeth ( ), who was Henry VIIIs daughter and half-sister to Edward and Mary, the church in England adopted Protestant beliefs again. The Elizabethan Settlement required outward conformity to the official church, but rarely inquired about inward beliefs. Some practices of the church, including ritual, resembled the Catholic practices. The Book of Common Prayer- Thomas Cramner Executed by Mary Tudor
Anglicanism Expands Catholicism remained, especially among the gentry, but could not be practiced openly. Some reformers wanted to purify (hence Puritans) the church of its remaining Catholic aspects. The resulting church, Protestant doctrine and practice but retaining most of the physical possessions, such as buildings, and many powers, such as church courts, of the medieval church, was called Anglicanism.
Reform Elsewhere in Europe The Parliament in Ireland established a Protestant church much like the one in England. Only the people in and around Dublin followed the Protestant teachings, where most of the people of Ireland remained untouched by Protestantism. The Catholic Church and its priests became the religious, and eventually, the national, leaders of the Irish people.
Presbyterian Church John Knox ( ), upon his return from the Continent, led the Reformation in Scotland. Parliament, dominated by nobles, established Protestantism in The resulting church, which followed Calvinist beliefs, was called the Presbyterian Church. John Knox- fiercely Calvinist
Protestantism in France France, near Geneva and Germany, experienced efforts at establishing Protestantism, but the kings of France had control of the church there and gave no encouragement to reformers. Calvinists, known in France as Huguenots, were especially common among the nobility and, after 1562, a series of civil wars involving religious differences (War of the Three Henrys) resulted. Catherine de Medici
Here I stand, I can do no other. The break with the Pope and Church were now permanent. Frederick III of Saxony, protected Luther in Wartburg Castle for a year. Frederick never accepted Luthers beliefs but protected him because Luther was his subject. The weakness of Charles V as HRE contributed to Luthers success in avoiding the penalties of the pope. Scene from the film: Luther
Luthers Writings An Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (1520) argued that nobles aw well as clergy, were the leaders of the church and should undertake to reform it. Although some radical zealots saw Luther as a symbol of resistance to the Church, he was, in fact a conservative who rejected an alliance with other humanists like Erasmus and even urged the destruction of synagogues.
Additional Writings The Babylonian Captivity: replaced the seven sacraments with only two. The Freedom of the Christian Man: explains Luthers view on his Justification of Faith. Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of the Peasants: supported the nobles in the Peasants Revolt. In 1534, Luther translated the Bible into German Subsequent Developments of
Subsequent Developments of Lutheranism Economic burdens being increased on the peasants by their lords, combined with Luthers words that a Christian is subject to one one, led the peasants of Germany to revolt in The ensuing noble repression, supported by Luther, resulted in the deaths of 70,000 to 100,000 peasants. German peasants plotting
Protestantism At a meeting of the Holy Roman Empires leading figures in 1529, a group of rulers, influenced by Luthers teachings protested the decision of the majority – hence the term Protestant. Protestant originally meant Lutheran but eventually was applied to all Western Christians who do not maintain allegiance to the Pope. After a failure of Protestant and Catholic representatives to find a mutually acceptable statement of faith, the Augsburg Confession of 1530, was written as a comprehensive statement of Lutheran beliefs.
Lutheran Reforms Led by Philip Melanchthon, the Educator of Germany, Lutherans undertook much educational reform, including schools for girls. Denmark became Lutheran in 1523 and Sweden in Lutheran rulers in Germany in order to protect themselves from Charles V formed the Schmalkaldic League in Lands owned by the Catholic church were also seized.
The Peace of Augsburg After warfare in the 1540s, which Charles V won, but due to his treatment of political rulers, was unable to follow up and reestablish the Church. The Peace of Augsburg (1555) established the permanent religious division of Germany into Lutheran and Catholic Churches. The statement (cuius regio, eius religio) whose religion, his religion meant that the religion of any area would be that of the ruling authority.