The Valois Family: The Beginning of the End Henri II was the last powerful Valois Three weak sons followed: Francis II Charles IX Henri III Catherine de Medici controlled the sons: Was mother to the boys Played both sides in the civil war (Politique) Developed a reputation for cruelty
The French Civil War There were two sides: Guise family led Catholics in North Bourbon family led Huguenots in South Fighting for the royal inheritance Catherine supported the Guises in the first phase. St. Bartholomews Day Massacre August 24, ,000 Huguenots were killed Henri of Navarre, a Bourbon, survived
The French Civil War Catherine started supporting the Bourbons. Henri of Navarre defeated Catholic League & becomes Henry IV of France. Effects of Civil War: France was left divided by religion Royal power had weakened Valois family now replaced by Bourbons Catholic League Protestant Union CIVIL WAR
Triumphal Entry of Henry IV Into Paris – Peter Paul Reubens
Ended Spanish interference in France Converted to Catholicism : Did this to compromise and make peace Paris is worth a mass. This was an example of politique [the interest of the state comes first before any religious considerations] Fighting for the royal inheritance Passed Edict of Nantes in 1598: Granted religious rights to Huguenots Did not grant religious freedom for all Henry IV of France
Kagans Four Pillars of Spanish Power 1. 1.New World Riches 1. 1.Incredible wealth from gold and silver mines BUT Spain never entirely free of debt 2. 2.Increased Population 1. 1.Gap between rich and poor grew immensely; Spanish peasantry most heavily taxed in all of Europe 3. 3.Efficient Bureaucracy & Military 1. 1.Lesser nobility = efficient, loyal bureaucratic machine 4. 4.Supremacy in the Mediterranean 1. 1.Battle of Lepanto, 1571: 1/3 of Turkish fleet sunk or captured Philip inherits Portugal & Spanish army dominates resistance
Revolt in the Netherlands (a.k.a. The Eighty Years War)
Habsburg History Charles V ( ) – –Born in Ghent, Belgium in 1500; inherits Low Countries 1515 – –Seen as one of their own Philip II inherits 1556 – but he is SPANISH! and CATHOLIC! therefore resented – –Calvinism strong in Netherlands – –Philip – great defender of Catholic faith - tries to root out Calvinism by force (Spanish Inquisition & Spanish troops)
Dutch Revolt Philip makes his sister Margaret, regent – Cardinal Granvelle, head councilor – –But Calvinists angry and attack Antwerp: churches, libraries, statues, altars destroyed William of Orange (the Silent) & Count of Egmont – –(German – but has estates in Netherlands) – organizes Calvinist province leaders against Spanish; war at sea (Dutch, Danes, Scots & English) – –William changes religion three times for political reasons to resist oppressive Spanish rule in the Netherlands – Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Puritan
Duke of Alba U6.2 #6U6.2 #6 –Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, duke of Alba, who was appointed captain-general of the Netherlands The Duke of Alba presiding over the Council of Troubles
Calvinist Dutch privateers, known the Sea Beggars, assault the port of Brill in April 1572 during the Netherlands revolt against Spanish domination. The Sea Beggars, who used their shallow draft boats to effectively control important waterways, were a significant factor in the success of the Dutch Revolt. "Dutch Revolt." Image. Hulton Archive. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, Web. 12 Sept
Spanish Fury - What was the Spanish Fury, Nov. 4, 1576?What was the Spanish Fury, Nov. 4, 1576? What was the Pacification of Ghent, Nov. 8, 1576? To what other treaty can it be compared?What was the Pacification of Ghent, Nov. 8, 1576? To what other treaty can it be compared? Jan Union of Brussels = 2 yrs. Unified Netherlands!Jan Union of Brussels = 2 yrs. Unified Netherlands! What was the Perpetual Edict?What was the Perpetual Edict? Was the Dutch Revolt over?Was the Dutch Revolt over?
Unity broken Alex Farnese, Duke of Parma (Margarets son) to break unity in 1579 – –William of Orange and friends hold 7 northern provinces – establish the Union of Utrecht, deny Spanish control – –Southern provinces form Catholic union, Union of Arras, and accept Spanish control Dec the Apology (U2.6 #11) Dutch Declaration of Independence (1581) – –French duke of Alençon (deposed in 1583) July 1584, William of Orange assassinated – –Maurice aided by England and France
Fall of Philip II in the Netherlands How did Philip II undermine his own ability to re-take the Netherlands in the 1580s? Elizabeth I, Queen of England – dilemma: – –either help Protestants thereby antagonizing Philip – –or not help, but Spain might invade England if they gain Netherlands – –so she helps the Dutch secretly – then openly and in 1588 she defeats the Spanish Armada in the English Channel
The Netherlands... after the revolt 1609 revolt ends – Union of Utrecht becomes United Provinces (aka Dutch Republic) but do not gain independence from Spain until 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia (end of 30 Years War)
The Spanish Hapsburgs & Europe (1556) Philip II consolidated Hapsburg lands at the end of the 16c.
The Spanish Netherlands: Union of Utrecht, 1579 The United Provinces still recognized Spanish rule, but, in 1581, they declared their independence.
The Dutch Federation REGENTS - provincial level - held virtually all the power - strong advocates of local independence STADHOLDER - States General representative from each province - responsible for defense and order STATES GENERAL - federal assembly - foreign affairs (war) - all issues had to be referred to the local Estates
England ( ) The Reign of Mary I and Elizabeth I Queen Elizabeth II welcomes Pope Benedict XVI to Scotland, Sept. 16, 2010 BBCBBC
Queen Mary I, r Born 1513, ½ sister of Edward and devout Catholic; daughter of Catherine of Aragon U2.7 #1, #2Born 1513, ½ sister of Edward and devout Catholic; daughter of Catherine of Aragon U2.7 #1, # married Philip II of Spain1554 married Philip II of Spain –Distrust made Catholicism more unpopular –300+ heretics were burned at the stake, public mass executions (i.e. Thomas Cranmer, John Hooper) –U7.3 #3 - How did being in exile actually make this group more radical? 1558 Mary dies of stomach cancer1558 Mary dies of stomach cancer –England actually more Protestant than in 1553
Queen Elizabeth I, (r ) Born 1533, legitimate child?? – Act of Succession, 1534 (but Edward rescinds this act)Born 1533, legitimate child?? – Act of Succession, 1534 (but Edward rescinds this act) –imprisoned by Bloody Mary on charges of conspiracy –sexually abused by Catherine Parrs 4 th husband, Lord Thomas Seymour (also her uncle by marriage) 1558 ascends the throne1558 ascends the throne
Elizabethan Religious Settlement, U2.7 #4 & 5 Re-establishes Church of England (Anglican Church) w/ aid of Sir William Cecil 1559 reaffirms the Act of Supremacy (original AoS, 1534)Re-establishes Church of England (Anglican Church) w/ aid of Sir William Cecil 1559 reaffirms the Act of Supremacy (original AoS, 1534) –Act of Uniformity, 1559 – Book of Common Prayer (Edward VI) broad, ambiguous dogmas that accommodated many believersbroad, ambiguous dogmas that accommodated many believers all required to belong BUT those who refused = Puritans (English Calvinists) & Catholics are mildly tolerated (ignored) as long as they didnt threaten unity of her ruleall required to belong BUT those who refused = Puritans (English Calvinists) & Catholics are mildly tolerated (ignored) as long as they didnt threaten unity of her rule –1563 Thirty–Nine Articles – moderate Protestantism = official religion within the Church of England
From left to right are as follows: Philip and Mary with War, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Elizabeth I with Peace and PlentyFrom left to right are as follows: Philip and Mary with War, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Elizabeth I with Peace and Plenty
Catholic & Protestant Extremists English nobles in Ireland adopt 39-Articles BUT English nobles in Ireland adopt 39-Articles BUT –native Irish remain Catholic - view the Church of Ireland as political tool of ruling English class Catholic extremists supported by Spain and FranceCatholic extremists supported by Spain and France –U2.7 #6 Puritans, Presbyterians and Congregationalists also a problem U2.7 #7Puritans, Presbyterians and Congregationalists also a problem U2.7 #7
Deterioration of Relations with Spain U2.7 #8 1567, Spain troops under Duke of Alba occupy Netherlands – is England the next target?1567, Spain troops under Duke of Alba occupy Netherlands – is England the next target? 1570 Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth1570 Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth Sea Beggars take Brill in the NetherlandsSea Beggars take Brill in the Netherlands 1571 Spain defeat Turks in Battle of Lepanto = English enter defense pact w/ France1571 Spain defeat Turks in Battle of Lepanto = English enter defense pact w/ France 1570s state-sanctioned piracy against Spanish begins1570s state-sanctioned piracy against Spanish begins 1585, Treaty of Nonsuch = English soldiers and cavalry sent to Netherlands1585, Treaty of Nonsuch = English soldiers and cavalry sent to Netherlands
Elizabeth I (Tudor) Mary,Queen of Scots (Stuart) U2.7 #9
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots Queen of Scotland, Catholic; heir to English throne after ElizabethQueen of Scotland, Catholic; heir to English throne after Elizabeth 1568, forced to flee by John Knoxs Calvinists (Presbyterians)1568, forced to flee by John Knoxs Calvinists (Presbyterians) –also possibly involved with death/murder of first husband, Lord Darnley believed to be involved in several plots to take throne from Elizabethbelieved to be involved in several plots to take throne from Elizabeth –1571 Ridolfi Plot –1582 Duke of Guise Plot –1583 Throckmorton Plot –1586 Babington Plot Feb. 18, 1587 beheaded after 19 years internmentFeb. 18, 1587 beheaded after 19 years internment
Defeat of the Spanish ArmadaDefeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588 Defeat of the Spanish Armada Spanish Fleet: led by Duke of Medina-Sidonia - 25,000 Spanish sailors, 130 ships, 123,790 cannonballsSpanish Fleet: led by Duke of Medina-Sidonia - 25,000 Spanish sailors, 130 ships, 123,790 cannonballs English fleet: led by Sir Francis Drake ships– smaller, more agile (U2.7#10)English fleet: led by Sir Francis Drake ships– smaller, more agile (U2.7#10)
Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588 The Spanish Plan : to reach the Netherlands and pick up the Duke of Parmas men – get them across to England for war! The Spanish Plan : to reach the Netherlands and pick up the Duke of Parmas men – get them across to England for war! Problems: Winds vs. them – takes 3 wks to reach N. Spain, then…Problems: Winds vs. them – takes 3 wks to reach N. Spain, then… –July 30 – 1 st battle – then English follow the Armada up the Channel –August 6 – Calais – but Duke of Parma isnt ready Armada low on water, food, ammunition & English are preparing an attack to prevent the rendezvous of the Armada and the Dukes armyArmada low on water, food, ammunition & English are preparing an attack to prevent the rendezvous of the Armada and the Dukes army
Defeat of the Spanish ArmadaDefeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588 Defeat of the Spanish Armada August 7 – English attack – with fireships – set some of the larger Spanish galleys on fireAugust 7 – English attack – with fireships – set some of the larger Spanish galleys on fire By 4pm on Aug 8…By 4pm on Aug 8… – Spanish face defeat so escape to North Sea --- lose numerous ships to wind – run aground on cliffs of Ireland --- tragedy!!! By Aug 12 Duke of Medina-Sidonia capitulatesBy Aug 12 Duke of Medina-Sidonia capitulates –15,000-20,000 Spaniards dead – ½ of the navy –Between 1/3 and ½ of Spanish ships destroyed The invincible armada católica is defeated!The invincible armada católica is defeated! England = new European naval super powerEngland = new European naval super power
The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground. At the beginning it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants. At the end it was Habsburg power that was threatened. Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in Characteristics of the Thirty Years War
Ferdinand II inherited Bohemia. The Bohemians hated him. Ferdinand refused to tolerate Protestants. Defenestration of Prague May, 1618 Bohemia named a new king, Frederick II. The Bohemian Phase:
Ferdinand II becomes Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick II borrowed an army from Bavaria. Frederick lost his lands in the fighting. The rebellion in Bohemia inspired others. The Bohemian Phase:
Ferdinand II tried to end all resistance. Tried to crush Protestant northern Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand II used Albrecht von Wallenstein for the army. Wallenstein defeated Protestants in north. Edict of Restitution (1629): Restored to Catholics all lands lost since Deprived all Protestants, except Lutherans, of their religious and political rights. German princes feared Ferdinand he fired Wallenstein in effort to calm them. The Danish Phase:
France & Sweden now get involved. Both want to stop Habsburg power. Sweden led the charge. France provided support. Catholic Cardinal Richelieu is supporting German Protestants over German Catholics Why? Richelieu cared more about breaking the Habsburg encirclement of France than unifying Christianity under the Catholic Church. Richelieu is a Politique!!! Gustavus Adolphus invaded the HR Empire. Ferdinand II brought back Wallenstein. Swedish advance was stopped. German princes still feared Ferdinand II. Wallenstein assassinated to appease them. The Swedish Phase:
France & Sweden switched roles. Richelieu and France go from supporting the Protestant cause financially to actively sending troops to fight the Catholic League All countries in Europe now participated. This phase was most destructive! German towns decimated. Agriculture collapsed famine resulted. 8 million dead 1/3 of the population [from 21 million in 1618 to 13.5 million in 1648] Caused massive inflation. Trade was crippled throughout Europe. The French Phase:
Political Provisions: Each Ger. prince became free from any kind of control by the HR Emperor. The United Provinces [Dutch Neths.] became officially independent so. part remained a Spanish possession (Belgium today). Fr. recovered. most of the German-speaking province of Alsace. Sweden got lands in No. Ger. on the Baltic & Black Sea coasts. Switzerland became totally independent of the HR Emperor Swiss Confederation. Sweden won a voice in the Diet of the HR Emp. Brandenburg got important territories on No. Sea & in central Germany. The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
Religious Provisions: Calvinists would have the same privileges as the Lutherans had in the Peace of Augsburg. The ruler of each state could determine its official religion, BUT [except in the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs], he must permit freedom of private worship. The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
Many Protestants felt betrayed. The pope denounced it. Only merit it ended the fighting in a war that became intolerable! For the next few centuries, this war was blamed for everything that went wrong in Central Europe. Nobody Was Happy!
What were the long-range effects of the Thirty Years War?