Презентация на тему: " Paths to Absolutism: Europe in the Seventeenth Century." — Транскрипт:
Paths to Absolutism: Europe in the Seventeenth Century
France: The Beginning of the Bourbon Dynasty Religious wars between Catholics and Protestants tore France apart in the late 1500s. Henry IV of Navarre unifies country –Issues Edict of Nantes –Paris is well worth a mass
France Under Louis XIII When Henry was assassinated, the throne was given to his 9 yr.. old son, Louis XIII. Nobility appoint Cardinal Richelieu as his chief minister. –Richelieu spent the next 18 years strengthening the central government of France. Richelieu is a politique –Supports protestantism abroad and Catholicism at home –Reduces the scope of the Edict of Nantes
Richelieu and Mazarin Goal of Richelieu was the centralization of royal authority –Implements the system of intendants- royal agents directly loyal to the king –Hires middle class professionals- Nobles of the robe Defeated the armies of both the nobles and the Huguenots. –Tear down walled cities Cardinal Mazarin
Louis XIV and the Fronde Mazarin -regent of young Louis XIV. The Fronde –Various groups within France rebelled against the boy king, but eventually the uprising was put down. Young Louis XIV
The Sun King Under Louis XIV, who assumed absolute power, France became the most powerful state in Europe.
France Under Louis XIV Distrusts Nobility – Louis appointed intendants (royal officials), to govern the provinces in his name. Under Louis XIV, the French army became the strongest in Europe with over 300,000 men at arms. –Defeat of Spain in the 30 Years War makes France the most powerful country in Europe –Peace of the Pyrennes »also ties Spains family w/ France Carlos the Bewitched Charles II
France Under Louis XIV Chief minister of Finance – Jean Baptiste Colbert –Colbert followed mercantilist policies to promote the economy and trade of France. Colberts policies helped make France the wealthiest country in all of Europe. However, due to the number of wars France was involved in the treasury was often short of funds. Mercantilism –Favorable balance of trade –Keep gold and silver in country –Tariffs on imports –Encourage exports –Subsudize industries –Develop colonies Jean Baptist Colbert
Versailles Statistics f 2,000 acres of grounds f 12 miles of roads f 27 miles of trellises f 200,000 trees f 210,000 flowers planted every year f 80 miles of rows of trees f 55 acres surface area of the Grand Canal f 12 miles of enclosing walls f 50 fountains and 620 fountain nozzles f 21 miles of water conduits f 3,600 cubic meters per hour: water consumed f 26 acres of roof f 51,210 square meters of floors f 2,153 windows f 700 rooms f 67 staircases f 6,000 paintings f 1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings f 2,100 sculptures f 5,000 items of furniture and objects d'art f 150 varieties of apple and peach trees in the Vegetable Garden
France Under Louis XIV Massive military spending –French army was under the guidance of Minister of War, Francois Louvois. Louvois reorganized army –basing promotions on merit rather than being purchased. –The army was well equipped and highly trained. Discipline was very harsh and was the responsibility of General Jean Martinet. –(today a strict disciplinarian is called a martinet) Francois Louvois
Wars of Louis XIV Wars of Devolution: Dutch War: War of the League of Augsburg: –By the end of the third war in 1697, both Louvois and Colbert were dead and the treasury was empty. War of the Spanish Succession: –To counteract France, the great powers of Europe united against France. –In Frances first two wars, they gained some cities along with the region of Franche-Comte. –In the final war (War of the Spanish Succession) France was soundly defeated.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes, forcing over 100,000 French Huguenots to leave France. Some of the most productive citizens leave France for business friendly countries- Netherlands, German states Louis XIV
French Decline Years of costly warfare and an ill-advised policy of persecuting the Huguenots led to the decline of French power after the death of Louis XIV. Advises his great- grandson not to fight costly wars Admits his failings
Successes and Failures Louis XIV ruled France for 72 years. During this time France became the center of culture for Europe. However, in foreign and domestic affairs many of Louis policies were failures. –– France became involved in many costly wars which they lost. –– Countries such as England feared a strong France and promoted a Balance of Power among the European countries. –– Another major mistake of Louis occurred when he revoked the Edict of Nantes. Forcing thousands of Huguenots out of France.
The End of Louis XIVs Reign Louis died in 1715, having outlived all of his sons and all but one grandson. –– He ruled for a total of 72 years. His five year old great grandson inherited his throne and became Louis XV. Louis XV was unable to maintain control of the government in such a way as his great- grandfather had. Pierre Gobert, Portrait of Louis XV as achildin a corset Boys will become boys eventually- Louis XV
Cardinal Fluery John Law and the Mississippi Bubble Kept France out of foreign wars Aristocratic resurgence Rococo Art
Leopold I Holy Roman Emperor (r ) Leopold I Holy Roman Emperor (r ) Hold off the Ottoman Turks in their seize of Vienna Take Hungary in the Treaty of Carlowitz Marks the beginning of the Ottoman Empires decline
King Frederick I of Prussia (r ) Frederick III of Brandenburg(r ) Allies with Britain, Austria, the Netherlands and the German states against France in the War of the Sp. Succession European royals accept the Hohenzollerns to be elevated to royal status Frederick III of Brandenburg(r ) Allies with Britain, Austria, the Netherlands and the German states against France in the War of the Sp. Succession European royals accept the Hohenzollerns to be elevated to royal status
Frederick William I ( ) the army without a state Establishes fanatical military descipline Spent everything possible on the army Second largest standing army in Europe Never uses it.
The Pendulum of Russian History Pro-West For Progress & Change Encourage New Ideas, Technologies, etc. Anti-West Isolationist Xenophobic Ultra-Conservative Most Tsars Most Tsars Russian Orthodox Church Russian Orthodox Church Military Military Boyars Boyars peasants peasants A few Tsars A few Tsars Intellectual elites Intellectual elites Merchants/businessmen Merchants/businessmen Young members of the middle class. Young members of the middle class. REFORM-MINDED LEADER DEMAGOGUE
Peter the Great (r ) Changes Russias orientation from Constantinople to Western Europe –Visits W. Europe early in his reign Directly challenges tradition –Ex- Beard laws The Great Northern War –Expanded Russian territory westward –Established a new capital St. Petersburg