Презентация на тему: " 1 Physical Limits Chip Charles Babbage (1791–1871) The Difference Engine, 1823 –Special purpose device intended for the production of tables. –Made prototypes." — Транскрипт:
1 Physical Limits Chip Charles Babbage (1791–1871) The Difference Engine, 1823 –Special purpose device intended for the production of tables. –Made prototypes of parts of the engine –Unfinished project –London Science Museum made a working model in The Analytical Engine, 1834 –General purpose device –Uses punched cards –Only planned Important idea: The programmable computer
3 Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace ( ) During a nine-month period in , Ada translated for Babbage Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea's memoir on Babbage's newest proposed machine, the Analytical Engine. With the article, she appended a set of Notes which specified in complete detail a method for calculating Bernoulli numbers with the Engine, recognized by historians as the world's first computer program. (disputed).
4 Willgodt T. Odhner, 1874 Factory in St. Petersburg Moved to Moscow after the revolution, soon discontinued Odhner's legal successors went to Sweden, founded Aktiebolaget Original Odhner in Gothenburg Production continued until early 1970s Lots of similar clones worldwide (example: 1950s version)
6 Herman Hollerith, 1890 Won the contract to supply his system for the Eleventh Cencus of the United States Developed an entire integrated system of machines, data recording devices and processes for automating the enumeration A key element in his systems was the use of punched cards This type of were still in use by the data processing industry into the 1970s Founded the company that later became IBM
8 John Ambrose Fleming, 1904 Invents the thermionic valve / vacuum tube The beginning of electronics Used for signal amplification
9 First vacuum tube computer John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry builds the first digital electronic computer (ABC).
10 ABC Introduced the ideas of binary arithmetic, regenerative memory, and logic circuits Special purpose computer. Used binary math to solve differential equations Made of 300 vacuum tubes, card readers to input data, memory drums that stored information as electrical charges
11 Vacuum tube memory Cathode-ray tube memory, from the IBM 701 Defense Calculator, 1952
12 The Transistor Invented in 1947 by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain & William Shockley at Bell Labs. Considered by many to be one of the greatest inventions in modern history Key active component in practically all modern electronics
13 The Transistor explained Idea: Use a small amount of current to control a large amout of current. Can be used as a switch or an amplifier. collector emitter base
14 The Integrated Circuit SAGE aircraft-warning system the largest vacuum tube computer system ever built tubes, 275 tons Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments patents the first integrated circuit, a small package of transistors (among other components).
15 The first Personal Computer? Ambiguous question Some digital, automatic, programmable, accessible, small, inexpensive, simple computers: –Commodore 64 (1982) –IBM PC (1981) –Apple ][ (1977)