Презентация на тему: " Process Mapping CGR Rao Joint Director DIQA Bangalore." — Транскрипт:
Process Mapping CGR Rao Joint Director DIQA Bangalore
Quality and Processes Quality is judged by customers based on the output of a process Focusing on the work of the individual worker will not lead to greatly improved quality
Quality and Processes To improve quality, the process must be improved. Simply focusing on or defining a process is NOT improvement – we have to make changes and use data to show the change really is an improvement.
PROCESSES All activity takes place in terms of a process. Shocking lessons –#1: Most people do not think in terms of processes. They would rather think in terms of isolated events. –#2: When convinced of the value of thinking in terms of processes, most people still dont think in terms of processes. –#3: The word Process generates fear and resistance
Inputs WORK AS A PROCESS Process Outputs SUPPLIERSSUPPLIERS CUSTOMERSCUSTOMERS -Applies to all kinds of work, whether repetitive in nature or one-of-a-kind. -Having a high-level view of a process helps to: define project boundaries (starting and ending points); describe where to collect data
WHY CREATE A SIPOC MAP? –To develop a high-level view of the process. –To avoid dilution of Scope. –To highlight areas for improvement. –To ensure focus on the customer.
SIPOC : INPUTS Process Labour Material Ideas Information Environment -You may end up with input variables at this point -We will continue to focus on using funneling tools throughout the SIPOC mapping.
SIPOC : HIGH-LEVEL PROCESS VIEW Process -A high-level view is often captured as top-level flow chart Step 1: Bottling Step 2: Labeling Step 3: Inspecting Step 4: Packaging
SIPOC : OUTPUTS Process Physical products Documents Information Services Decisions
Questions to help with SIPOC Purpose –Why does this process exist? –What is the purpose of this process? –What is the outcome? Outputs –What product does this process make? –What are the outputs of this process? –At what point does this process end? Inputs/Suppliers –Where does the information or material you work on come from? Who are your suppliers? –What do they supply? –Where do they affect the process flow? –What effect do they have on the process and on the outcome?
Questions to help with SIPOC Customers –Who uses the products from this process? –Who are the customers of this process? Process steps –What happens to each input? –What conversion activities take place?
How to create a SIPOC Map Name the process. Clarify the start and the stop (boundaries) of the process. List key outputs and customers. List key inputs and suppliers. Identify, name, and order the major process steps.
Building of a Process Map List Suppliers List Inputs Map the ProcessList Outputs List customers 1.Determine the beginning and the end of the process 2.Brainstorm the process steps 3.Group processes into major process areas 4.Layout activities in sequence 5.Code each activity 6.Walk through the process thereby validating it.
One can normally ask the Following Questions Which steps add value ? Are all the steps necessary? Can any steps be combined? Can any steps be eliminated? Process mapping can give quick hints
What you need to know about a Process Many defects arise because something in a process is done incorrectly or inefficiently. To improve process sigma you need to be able to pinpoint process problems and find better, more effective ways to accomplish the same work.
It is preferable to use certain simple tools that will help you understand your process and….. Identify….In order to….. ComplexitySimplify; error-proof Wasted timeSpeed up cycle time BottlenecksTarget improvements; reduce constraints.
Understanding a Process To better understand your process, you will: –Create a flowchart of your process. –Identify which of your process steps are value-added and which are non value-added. Determine cycle time and identify bottlenecks. Look for errors or inefficiencies that contribute to defects.
FLOW CHARTS Flow charts are tools that make a process visible. Start Step 1 Step 2Step 3 Decision Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 End No
WHY USE FLOWCHARTS Use of a Flowchart: Creates a common understanding about the process Clarifies steps in the process Helps identify improvement opportunities in the process (complexity, waste, delays, inefficiencies and bottlenecks) Helps uncover problems in the process. Helps reveal how the process operates
WHEN TO USE FLOWCHARTS Use a flowchart: –To create common understanding. –To clarify the steps in a process –To build consensus on how a process actually operates and how it should operate. –To understand the cause of common problems affecting how all units are processed.
Customer Service Demand Fulfillment Demand Generation New Product Development ShippingPackingProducing Ordering materials Packaging SealingFillingMixing Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 STARTING AT THE TOP Key business activities can be defined at different levels of the organisation Level 1 = Highest level view of the work in the organisation Level 2 = Work that flows across several departments or within an entire department or work area. Level 3 = A detailed view of a particular process.
BASIC VS. ACTIVITY FLOWCHARTS In your SIPOC analysis, you probably created a top-level flowchart that just showed the basic steps of the process In order to understand the current situation in sufficient detail, you may find that you need a more detailed flowchart. –The level of detail varies depending on need and circumstance. –Additional information can be written under each step. –A more detailed flowchart is called an Activity flowchart. Start Step 1Step 2Step 3 Step 4 End
WHICH FLOWCHARTING TECHNIQUE SHOULD I USE? Basic FlowchartActivity FlowchartDeployment Flowchart To identify the major steps of the process To illustrate where in the process you will collect data To display the complexity and decision points of a process To identify rework loops and bottlenecks To help highlight handoff areas in processes between people or functions To clarify roles and indicate dependencies
HOW TO CREATE FLOWCHARTS When creating a flowchart, work with a group so you can get multiple viewpoints. –Brainstorm action steps Write these on self-stick notes or on a flipchart Make sure to include the steps that occur when things go wrong Arrange the steps in sequence Be consistent in the direction of flow-time should always flow from top to bottom, or from left to right Use appropriate flowchart symbols Check for missing steps or decision points Number the steps
FOUR PERSPECTIVES Flowcharts can map four different perspectives on a process: –What you think the process is? –What the process really is? –What the process could be? –What the process should be? At this stage, you are trying to define the current situation, as it is. Therefore, your flowchart(s) should map what is really happening in the process.
Processes and Complexity Compare the flow chart below with the one on the next page -which of the flow chart reflects more accurately reality? -which of these flow charts would you prefer to use? Why? Take original to copier Place original on copier Select size Select orientation Select number of copies Start copier Copier runs Another page? Remove original Collect copies Staple Clear Modes Leave room Yes No
VALUE-ADDED AND NONVALUE-ADDED STEPS Value-Added Step: –Customers are willing to pay for it. –It physically changes the product –Its done right the first time. Non-Value Added Step: –Is not essential to produce output. –Does not add value to the output. –Includes: Defects, errors, omissions. Preparation/setup, control/inspection Over-production, processing, inventory Transporting, motion, waiting, delays
EXAMPLES Value-Added Activities Non Value Added Activities Entering order Ordering materials Preparing drawing Assembling Legally mandated testing Packaging Shipping to customer Waiting Storing Staging Counting Inspecting Recording Obtaining Approvals Testing Reviewing Copying Filing Revising/Reworking Tracking
CYCLE TIME REDUCTION Understanding cycle time: –Provides a better understanding of the process. –Shows the impact of nonvalue- added steps on the time it takes to produce product or service. –Identifies bottlenecks in the process Reducing cycle time: Helps increase predictability in the process Helps reduce waste and rework, which reduces costs. Provides a competitive advantage by reducing cycle time. Waste Defects Over-production Over-processing Transporting Inventory Motion Delays Value Adding Processing time
MEASURING CYCLE TIME 1.Decide whether you will measure cycle time on the entire process or on a subset of steps. 2.Develop operational definitions for the starting and ending points of each step. 3.Develop consensus about what is value- added and what is nonvalue-added time (if you havent done so already) 4.Develop a data collection form.
Process Step Cumulative Time VA TimeNVA Time Notes
VALUE ANALYSIS MATRIX You can track specific types of non-value added time with a Value Analysis Matrix. This helps clarify: –the types of waste present in the process, –the percentage of overall process time each non-Value adding step contributes.
BOTTLENECKS Bottlenecks increase cycle time A bottleneck is: –Any resource whose capacity limits the amount of information or material that flows through the process. –Any resource whose capacity is equal to or less than the demand placed upon it. How do you recognise bottlenecks?
WHEN TO GO FOR DESIGN EXCELLENCE Process entirely broken: the existing process has too many non value added steps. Changing customer expectations: by the time the current problems are solved, new problems will occur. Technology development: new technologies allow to meet all customer requirements at lower cost or to gain a competitive edge.
WHEN TO GO FOR DESIGN EXCELLENCE Next generation; the existing products remaining Life Cycle is very short, a successor is required soon. System limits: the performance gap is due to system / business model configurations that cannot be changed.
Process mapping Become aware of the Problem. Describe the Problem Define & Verify the root causes Identify potential root causes Select likely causes Is the potential cause a root cause Yes Identify alternative solutions Verify corrective actions Implement permanent actions Prevent Recurrence Congratulate your team
QUALITY AND PROCESSES Quality is judged by customers based on the output of a process. Focusing on the work of the individual worker will not lead to greatly improved quality. To improve quality, the process must be improved.
QUALITY AND PROCESSES Simply focusing on or defining a process is NOT improvement – we have to make changes and use data to show the change really is an improvement.