have two main uses: 1. Using semicolons to separate the items in a list when the items are complex. Istanbuls steep hills and harbor views remind you of San Francisco; its overcrowded streets recall Bombay; its transportation facilities evoke Venice, for you can go many places by boats, which are continually making stops. Im not arguing that the postmodern shift erases traditional texts or narratives; instead, Im trying to make clear that our traditional texts are changing. 2. Using semicolons to join two sentences.
have three main uses: 1. Using colons in certain conventional patterns. 2. Using colons to prepare readers for information at the end of a sentence. 3. Using colons to link two sentences.
in certain conventional patterns 1. Using colons in salutations. !?! 2. Using colons in memo headings. Dear Sir or Madam: Dear Dr. Luchesi: Dear Ms. Poole To: The members of the Research Committee From: Ralph Bunker Re: Next Steps (Re: means regarding; think of it as being like the subject heading of an )
in certain conventional patterns 3. Using colons in writing the time of day. 4. Using colons between title and subtitle of any communication - book, article, movie. I awoke just before the alarm went off, at 5:59 A.M. Katherine Dunham: Dancing Queen Wind: How the Flow of Air Has Shaped Life, Myth, and the Land 5. Using colons in works cited listings. Le Faye, Deirdre, ed. Jane Austens Letter. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.
to prepare readers for information at the end of a sentence 1. To introduce an explanation. The networked information economy holds out the possibility of reversing two trends in cultural production central to the project of control: concentration and commercialization.
to prepare readers for information at the end of a sentence 2. To introduce an example. Writers ought to consider how the defense - and commercially- tied history of computers has shaped the thinking encouraged by the design of the software we use for writing: How many word processing or web- page composing software packages do you know that encourage scribbling, doodling, or writing outside the margins?
to prepare readers for information at the end of a sentence 3. To introduce a list. I improvised with my equipment: fashioning together a hook and a line, making my own harpoons, or gathering up cast-off pieces of net from the fishermen.
to link two sentences 1. When the second sentence explains or summarizes the first. Theres a reason that freedom of the press was enumerated in the First Amendment: Its more fundamental to our liberty than even guns.
to link two sentences 2. When the second sentence is a quotation. In order to write todays novel, movie, or song, I need to use and rework existing cultural forms, such as story lines and twists. This characteristic is known to economists as the on the shoulders of giants effect, recalling a statement attributed to Isaac Newton: If I have seen father it is because I stand on the shoulders of giants.
have four main uses 1. Using parentheses to explain abbreviations 2. Using parentheses for numbers in list Technobabe Times (TBT) produces our campuss feminist newspaper. The steps are (1) punctuate, (2) capitalize, (3) proofread. ( )
have four main uses ( ) 3. Using parentheses for in-text citations 4. Using parentheses to add information Bronson (1950) notes that since their muscles are so flexible, cats seem to bounce when they fall rather than break any bones (p. 32). Anything that you include in your paper that is not from you (or from the piece of literature with which you are working) is considered a secondary source.
introducing acronyms ( ) There are other acceptable punctuation strategies for introducing acronyms: The basic genre that World of Warcraft belongs to is called the massively multiplayer online game, or M.M.O.
have four main uses 1. Using a dash to emphasize information at the end of a sentence. I stood in my empty room. In place of the bed was - shame? The wall-to-wall carpet - roughly the color of brains - was frayed and worn. 2. Using dashes to indicate a restatement or a change in tone.
have four main uses 3. Using dashes to set off explanatory information. Markets full of live animals - rabbits, chickens, lambs, and cows - were part of our lives. On the witness stand, Michael Eisner responded to a lawyers question by saying, I think youre getting into an area that - that - I just want to say that this is ill- advised … 4. Using dashes to show hesitation in speech.
Keep in mind these differences between hyphens and dashes: - hyphens are shorter than dashes; - hyphens are used in between words and parts of words; - dashes are used between phrases and sentences.
have three main uses 1. Using hyphens to break words at the end of lines. If you need to break a word, break it after a syllable and put a hyphen at the end of the line: Eco-nom-ic hu-moured em-bas-sy man-age-ment af-ter-noon lead-er-ship noth-ing
have three main uses 2. Using hyphens for clarity: He was a big city man. - About a man from the city who is big. He was a big-city man. - About a man from a big city. When you use the prefixes re-, anti-, pre- with verbs: I resent her letter. - Her letter makes me angry. I re-sent her letter. - I sent her letter twice. Use hyphens if the first word of a compound word you are making begins with the same letter as the second: doll-like non-native
have three main uses 3. Using hyphens in compound words. twenty-three one hundred twenty-three one thousand two hundred and ninety-four When you write out numbers between 21 and 99, a hyphen is conventional: As adjectives: 20-years-old, up-to-date; as nouns: ice-cream
have three main uses 1. Using hyphens to break words at the end of lines. If you need to break a word, break it after a syllable and put a hyphen at the end of the line. On the witness stand, Michael Eisner responded to a lawyers question by saying, I think youre getting into an area that - that - I just want to say that this is ill- advised … 2. Using dashes to show hesitation in speech.