Презентация на тему: " Designing Dynamic Websites Marshall White LTER Network Office." — Транскрипт:
Designing Dynamic Websites Marshall White LTER Network Office
Introductions Who are you folks? Where are you from? What are your expectations of this session? Do you have any specific questions? Do you have any specific problems that you are trying to solve?
Why do we need a website Provide information about your research program Promote your research activities Provide access to data Provide a public face for your station or organization Provide tools for scientists and researchers
Roadmap Creating pages - discussion Designing Sites - discussion Web technologies - discussion Developing web interface to Databases - exercise
How Does the WWW Work? HTML Documents (pages) stored on a server The page is requested by browser from a client using a browser The page is fetched and returned to the client by the web server using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http) Note that a page is identified by a Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
How Does the WWW Work? Web Browser WWW Server HTML file Web Server WWW Client Request
Standards For the WWW The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C is chief standards body for HTTP and HTML An international consortium of companies involved with the Internet and the Web. W3C was founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee, the original architect of the World Wide Web Develop open standards so that the Web evolves in a single direction rather than being splintered among competing factions
Browsers Netscape and MSIE are the big two. They contributed to browser wars, non standard html tags ( ), substandard browsers (Netscape 4) Browser Alternatives Mozilla Fire Fox – Open Source, Standards Based Opera - Standards Based, lots of features Alternatives are better browsers, fast, and they Kick butt!
So what is HTML? HTML Stands for Hypertext Markup Language Markup language means that a specific parts of a document have marks around them, giving them special meaning An HTML Document is a text document that uses tags for markup. Tags fall between angel brackets and have an open tag and a close tag this is paragrapgh text
What is HTML? Important to remember HTML tags were originally designed to define the content of a document means this is a paragraph Examples of tags Defines an HTML document Defines the document's body to Defines header 1 to header 6 Defines a paragraph Inserts a single line break Defines a horizontal rule Defines a comment
Example HTML Document Hello Hello World!! this is a simple HTML document Column 1 data 1
Web Forms Forms are used to collect input from the client. A form is an area that can contain form elements. Form elements are elements that allow the user to enter information (like text fields, textarea fields, drop-down menus, radio buttons, checkboxes, etc.) in a form. A form is defined with the tag.
Example Form First Name Last Name Favorite Chile: Red Green
What is XHTML? Extensible Hypertext Markup Language is a reformulation of HTML 4.0 in XML 1.0. proposed as a W3C Recommendation. XHTML is a stricter remaking of HTML as an application of XML. XHTML Is the equivalent of HTML 5.0 but is fully XML compliant
What is XHTML? Valid XHTML Untitled Document Hello world This is XHTML cool!!! Not Valid XHTML Untitled Document Hello world This is XHTML cool!!!
Adding Style to our pages Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a W3C Recommendation Styles define how to display html Styles can be attached to or imbedded within HTML documents A single HTML document may use one or more stylesheets that are then applied according to specified priorities
HTML with styles embedded Untitled Document Simple CSS Example heading 2 heading 3
Simple CSS Example heading 2 heading 3">
Advantages of stylesheets Stylesheets separate content from presentation Greatly decrease the amount work required when changing the look of a website.
Conclusion Web pages are served to clients by web servers when a client requests a URL Requests are handled using HTTP HTML provides structure to web pages through the use of tags. CSS provides style to web pages. Style can be attached in seprated documents or can be imbedded into an html document
Additional Resources W3shools HTML & XHTML: The Definitive Guide, 5th Edition – OReilly Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, 2nd Edition – OReilly
What is a website A site (location) on the World Wide Web. Each Web site contains a home page, which is the first document users see when they enter the site. The site might also contain additional documents and files. Each site is owned and managed by an individual, company or organization. webopedia.com
Web site development essentials Web site development is is a mix of various disciplines. Well designed websites are a combination art, science, and practicality
What is Information Architecture? Information architecture is the science of figuring out what you want your site to do and then constructing a blueprint before you dive in and put the thing together. webmonkey.com
Information Architecture Overview Adopt guiding principles Define the goals for your site Define the user experience Identify your site content Outline your site structure Prepare a visual design
IA – Guiding Principles Principles are guidelines for human conduct that are proven to have enduring, permanent value -- they are fundamental. Franklin Covey Examples Excellence Simplicity Integrity
IA – Define Site goals First step define a mission or purpose for the web site Define the short and long term goals for your website You want everyone to agree on the contents and purpose of the site that you are going to build. You want to have some metric for success
IA - User Experience After figuring out why a site should be built, the second most important thing is determining who the audience is. Audience is not defined by technology Defining the audience will help to determine how people will use your site
IA – Site Content We know why you have a site and who it is for, now we need to know what it will contain Identify content and functional requirements for your website What things do you need on your website and what do you need them to do? Group and label the contents
IA – Site Structure Structure is the the skeleton for your website. Provides a basis for organization and navigation Is the foundation for all the things you will build.
IA – Site Structure Develop a site structure listing Section 1 Section 1.1 Section 1.2 Section 2 Section 2.1 Section 2.2 Section Section Section Section 2.3 Section 2.4 Section 3
IA – Site Structure Develop Architectural Blueprint
IA – Visual Design The last thing you need to do. A good design enables users to create a mental map of your website Serves several purposes Provide a users with a sense of place Provide a consistent look and feel Promotes the level of professionalism
Templates Page Formatting Your Home Page Navigation Style Accessibility Separation of content from presentation Optimization Website components
Templates A template is simply a web page "shell" that contains your entire page design, logo, images, navigational links and a specific area for your content. Create a template that you can use to create subsequent pages of your web site. Different ways to implement templates Programmatically, through the web server, using software such as Macromedia Dreamweaver Use of templates allows for consistent look and feel
Page Formatting How do you want to display your page? 1 column, 2 column, 3 column Tables to layout your page Most widely used Fixed versus flexible CSS to layout your page - standards compliant, not supported by all browsers
Your Home Page Your home page is the storefront It should specifically let your visitors know exactly what you're offering. Create Sections within the page Limit home page to essential elements and link to the detailed informational pages Less is more
Navigation Global and local navigation system Keep in mind, your visitors may enter your site from pages other than your Home Page. Include good navigational links on every page. Make sure navigation is consistent Try to keep the number of clicks required to get from your main page to any other page on your site down to three or four. Convention is to link your logo(In the upper left conrner of the page ) to your Home page
Style Use caution when selecting your background and text colors. Use contrast Dont rely on color to relate information Use white as a background for large chunks of text
Accessibility Section 508 No worries if good markup Provide Alternatives Flash, graphics, multimedia need an alternative tag for images
Section 508 On August 7, 1998, President Clinton signed into law the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998 which covers access to federally funded programs and services. The law strengthens section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act and requires access to electronic and information technology provided by the Federal government. The law applies to all Federal agencies when they develop, procure, maintain, or use electronic and information technology. Federal agencies must ensure that this technology is accessible to employees and members of the public with disabilities to the extent it does not pose an "undue burden." Section 508 speaks to various means for disseminating information, including computers, software, and electronic office equipment. It applies to, but is not solely focused on, Federal pages on the Internet or the World Wide Web. It does not apply to web pages of private industry.
Separation of Content From Presentation Allow designers to design content managers to manage content Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Template Systems Content Management System (CMS)
Essential Web Site Components Domain Name Create an identity Search Feature Find content. Timely Content Content is updated regularly. Topic Based-Content News, employment, a particular research project Professional Logo Guiding principles
Essential Web Site Components Policies Data use/access, Disclaimers, Copyrights About Page Digital brochure Feedback Contact information, Technical support
Essential Web Site Components Policies Data use/access, Disclaimers, Copyrights About Page Digital brochure Feedback Contact information, Technical support
Additional Web site Components Calendar Directory Forums Data Catalog Site map Personnel directory Blogs Login areas
Search Engine Preparation Selecting the most relevant keywords for each page Placing the META keyword and description tags within the head section of each page Using your primary keywords as your page title Placing keywords within your image ALT tags Placing your primary keywords within heading tags Using your primary keywords as image names Using your primary keywords as page names for hyperlinks Using keywords within your body text
Web Page Optimization Image optimization Crop to the smallest area possible that still conveys your visual message Choose and apply the image size (in pixels) that you will need for your final Web page Reduce the resolution of the image to no more than 72 ppi (pixels per inch) Reduce the number of colors to the minimum necessary for the particular image GIF or PNG format for graphics JPG for photos. Include width and height in IMG tag
Web Development Tools Macromedia Dreamweaver A popular WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get) HTML editor. Great for beginners and advanced users alike. Coffee Cup A popular HTML editor that's great for beginners as well as advanced users. Includes a built in browser that will enable you to instantly preview your HTML as you go.
Web Development Tools Hot Dog Professional Three HTML editors, including HotDog Junior for children, PageWiz for the novice user and Professional for advanced and budding webmasters
Additional Resources Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, 2nd Edition – OReilly Web Design in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition Web Monkey uilding/ uilding/ uilding/tutorials/tutorial1.html uilding/tutorials/tutorial1.html
Basic Requirements Web server, server side technology, database server Programming Languages CGI, Embedded Languages Architectures LAMP Third Party Solutions Stand alone applications, Portals, Content Management Systems
Basic Requirements Web server A computer that delivers (serves up) Web pages. Any computer can be turned into a Web server by installing server software and connecting the machine to the Internet. Can use your own web server or a web server Provided by an Internet Service Provider
Web Servers Apache web server - The Apache Project is a collaborative software development effort aimed at creating a robust, commercial-grade, featureful, and freely-available source code implementation of an HTTP (Web) server. (Open Source) Currently Dominates the web server market More Info Very Secure Works on multiple platforms (Windows, Unix)
Server side Technologies Software that connects two otherwise separate applications. There are a number of technologies that link a database system to a Web server to allow users to request data from the database using forms displayed on a Web browser, Technologies enable the Web server to return dynamic Web pages based on the user's requests In this example we mean programming languages
Stand alone languages Pattern Extraction and Regular expression Language – PERL Especially designed for processing text One of the most popular languages for writing CGI scripts Common Gateway Interface CGI, a specification for transferring information between a World Wide Web server and a CGI program JAVA,– object oriented a general purpose programming language with a number of features that make the language well suited for use on the World Wide Web Python - object oriented OpenSource All Require Large amounts of programming to output HTML
Embedded Languages Embedded languages embed code directly with in HTML Active Server Pages – ASP Works primarily with Microsoft products Insert Microsoft Visual Basic into web pages Java Server pages - JSP An extension to the Java servlet technology Preated as an alternative to Microsoft's ASPs Coldfusion Web pages include tags written in Cold Fusion Markup Language (CFML) that simplify integration with databases
Embedded languages PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor - PHP Open source Similar syntax to that of Perl or C In an HTML document, PHP script is enclosed within special PHP tags author can jump between HTML and PHP (similar to ASP and Cold Fusion) Works on a wide number of platforms Work natively with the MySQL DB PHP was created in 1994 by Rasmus Lerdorf More info:
Database Servers Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle Are powerful full feature RDMSs Provide lots of tools for managing databases Have the ability to communicate with most all programming languages MSSQL only runs on windows Oracle runs on Windows and Unix Both Are proprietary and require purchasing software licenses ($$$$)
Database Servers MySQL Open source RDBMS that relies on SQL for processing the data in the database. MySQL is most commonly used for Web applications and embedded applications Become a popular alternative to proprietary database systems because of its speed and reliability. Can run on UNIX, Windows and Mac OS. More info
MySQL Tools Command Line From MySQL MySQL Administrator Administration console that allow you to administer your MySQL servers MySQL Control Center GUI client that works alongside the MySQL database server
MySQL Tools Other Products PHP My admin – Web based MySQL database administration tool (Free) MS Access MS Access can be used as a front end for MySQL This is done by creating an ODBC Connection to the MySQL database and then linking the tables within access
MySQL Tools Other Products Navicat - PremiumSoft Has a nice set of features for administering you databases Can connect to remote databases Proprietary eduactional version costs $85 More info
Architecture – Putting it together Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP – LAMP Can substitue the PERL or Python for PHP LAMP has become a de facto development standard. LAMP is the platform of choice for the development and deployment of high performance web applications Onlamp at OReilly
LAMP LAMP is Open Source – Free There's an extensive support network for all LAMP components. LAMP works well and is secure Its component technologies offer tremendous flexibility, rapid development, high performance, and fewer security and stability problems than many far-costlier proprietary solutions.
How it works WWW Browser (Firefox) Linux Server request HTML file WWW Server Apache PHP WWW Client MySQl Database
Third party Solutions Stand alone applications Calendars Forums Wikis Blogs Photo Gallery – PHP Gallery Where can I get these On the web
Portals/CMSs Portals/Content Management Systems (CMS) Store ALL the web content in a database (not just data and metadata) Provide pre-written modules containing Web form-based interfaces Associated database programs These modules are designed to be easy to use by even novice webmasters to provide specific functions on a web page PHP Examples are PostNuke, Komplete Lite, phpSlash, XOOPS
Portals/CMSs Advantages Easy to configure and use Allow input from users (subject to login) Many pre-existing modules Disadvantages Existing modules may not meet your needs May be difficult to extract content or transition to other systems
Exercise Using Dreamweaver to Develop your own apps
Our basic App. Begin with a query Query will return a result set. A list of records that matched our query From this list we will select a record and either return a new list or return the individual record.
Getting started with Dreamweaver Define a Site Site consists of a place on the local file system to store files and a place on a server to upload files Create a Database Connection A file that contains DB connection information DB name, user name, password
Dreamweaver resources Dreamweaver tutorials Open Dreamweaver select Help from the menu and select Getting Started and Tutorials Dreamweaver MX 2004: The Missing Manual – OReilly DMX Zone DreamweaverFeaver