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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 3 Motivation and Involvement Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 3-2 Opening Vignette Why do people go to boutique hotels? Personalized service Unique experience Also satisfies consumers ego needs as unique as I am
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 3-3 What Is Motivation? The driving force within individuals that impels them to action –Produced by a state of tension due to an unfulfilled need –Which leads to conscious/subconscious attempts to reduce the tension
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 3-4
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 3-5 Types of Needs Innate Needs –Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives Acquired needs –Generally psychological (or psychogenic) needs that are considered secondary needs or motives
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 3-6 Types of Motives Rational Motives –Goals chosen according to objective criteria (e.g., price) Emotional Motives –Goals chosen according to personal or subjective criteria (e.g., desire for social status) »continued
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 3-7 Types of Motives Latent Motives –Motives that the consumer is unaware of or unwilling to recognize –Harder to identify –Require projective techniques to identify Manifest Motives –Motives that the consumer is aware of and willing to express
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 3-8 Goals Generic Goals –the general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs –e.g., I want to get a graduate degree Product-Specific Goals –the specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals –e.g., I want to get an MBA in Marketing from Kellogg School of Management.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 3-9 The Selection of Goals The goals selected by an individual depend on their: –Personal experiences –Physical capacity –Prevailing cultural norms and values –Goals accessibility in the physical and social environment
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Motivations and Goals Positive Motivation A driving force toward some object or condition Leads to an Approach Goal A positive goal toward which behaviour is directed Negative Motivation A driving force away from some object or condition Leads to an Avoidance Goal A negative goal from which behaviour is directed away
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc The Dynamic Nature of Motivation Needs are never fully satisfied New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied A given need may lead totally different goals Consumers are more aware of their goals than their needs »continued
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc The Dynamic Nature of Motivation Consumer values, personality and self-concept influence consumer goals Consumers have multiple needs –Pre-potent need Motives are difficult to infer from behaviour Past experiences (success/failure) influence goals –Defence Mechanisms »continued
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc The Dynamic Nature of Motivation Motives may conflict with each other –Three types of motivational conflict Approach-approach: when a consumer is drawn towards two positive goals Approach-avoidance: when the goal object has both positive and negative qualities –You are both drawn toward and away from the object Avoidance-avoidance: when the consequences of buying an object is unpleasant, but the purchase does not lead to any pleasure »continued
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc The Dynamic Nature of Motivation Motives can be aroused in many ways –Physiological arousal Hunger, thirst –Emotional arousal daydreaming –Cognitive arousal Random thoughts –Environmental arousal Cues in the environment (e.g. smell of food)
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Defence Mechanism Methods by which people mentally redefine frustrating situations to protect their self- images and their self-esteem.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Types of Defence Mechanisms Aggression Rationalization Regression Withdrawal Projection Autism Identification Repression
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Philosophies Concerned With Arousal of Motives Behaviourist School –Behaviour is response to stimulus –Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored –Consumer does not act, but reacts Cognitive School –Behaviour is directed at goal achievement –Need to consider needs, attitudes, beliefs, etc. in understanding consumer behaviour
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 3-18
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Murrays List of Psychogenic Needs Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects : Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power, Accomplishment, and Prestige: Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition, Infavoidance Needs Connected with Human Power: Dominance, Deference, Similance, Autonomy, Contrariance continued
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Murrays List of Psychogenic Needs Sado-Masochistic Needs : Aggression, Abasement Needs Concerned with Affection between People: Affiliation, Rejection, Nurturance, Succorance, Play Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse : Cognizance, Exposition
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc McClellands Trio of Needs Power –individuals desire to control environment Affiliation –need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging Achievement –need for personal accomplishment –closely related to egoistic and self- actualization needs
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Mid-range Theories of Motivation Psychological Reactance –Motivational arousal due to threat of behavioural freedom Opponent Process Theory –Extreme initial reactions may be followed by extreme opposite reaction –Priming Small amounts of initial stimuli will lead to desire for more extreme amounts of exposure to same stimulus will lead to withdrawal »continued
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Mid-range theories Hedonic Consumption –Need to gain pleasure through the senses –Explains attraction to scary rides, adventure tours, etc Optimum Stimulation Level –Desire to maintain a certain level of stimulation that the consumer considers to be optimal
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Motivational Research Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers subconscious or hidden motivations. Consumers are not always aware of, or may not wish to recognize, the basic reasons underlying their actions.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Projective Techniques Metaphor analysis Story telling Picture drawing Photo sorts Thematic Apperception Tests Word Association Sentence Completion Third-person technique
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Motivation and Marketing Strategy Identify the needs and goals of the target market –Identify both latent and manifest motives Use knowledge of needs to segment the market and to position the product Use knowledge of needs to develop promotional strategies Reduce motivational conflict
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Consumer Involvement The level of personal relevance that a consumer sees in a product
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Types of Involvement Enduring Involvement –long-lasting involvement that arises out of a sense of high personal relevance Situational involvement Short-term involvement in a product of low personal relevance
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Types of Involvement- Contd Cognitive Involvement –Rational level involvement in products that are considered to be major purchases Affective Involvement –Emotional level involvement in products
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Factors Leading to High Involvement Level of perceived risk (social, financial or physical) Level of personal interest in product category Probability of making a mistake or buying the wrong product Extent of pleasure in buying and using a product Number and similarity of competitive brands available
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Measures of Involvement Brand involvement Ego involvement Importance of purchase Product involvement Situational Vs Enduring Vs Response involvement Involvement Profile
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Involvement and Marketing Strategy Choose media according to level of involvement –Print media for high involvement –Television for low involvement Choose messages according to level of involvement Find ways to raise level of involvement
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 7 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das.
Push/Pull/Profile Strategies Marketing Communications.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 1 Introduction to Consumer Behaviour Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 14 Consumer Decision Making I: The Process Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das.
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