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© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama t e n t h e d i t i o n Gary Dessler Chapter 11 Part 4 Compensation Establishing Strategic Pay Plans
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. List the basic factors in determining pay rates. 2. Explain in detail how to establish pay rates. 3. Explain how to price managerial and professional jobs. 4. Discuss current trends in compensation. 1. List the basic factors in determining pay rates. 2. Explain in detail how to establish pay rates. 3. Explain how to price managerial and professional jobs. 4. Discuss current trends in compensation. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11–2
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–3 Determining Pay Rates Employee compensation –All forms of pay or rewards going to employees and arising from their employment. Direct financial payments –Pay in the form of wages, salaries, incentives, commissions, and bonuses. Indirect financial payments –Pay in the form of financial benefits such as insurance.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–4 Overview of Compensation Laws Davis-Bacon Act (1931) –A law that sets wage rates for laborers employed by contractors working for the federal government. Walsh-Healey Public Contract Act (1936) –A law that requires minimum wage and working conditions for employees working on any government contract amounting to more than $10,000.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–5 Overview of Compensation Laws (contd) Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act –This act makes it unlawful for employers to discriminate against any individual with respect to hiring, compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–6 Overview of Compensation Laws (contd) Fair Labor Standards Act (1938) –This act provides for minimum wages, maximum hours, overtime pay for nonexempt employees after 40 hours worked per week, and child labor protection. The law has been amended many times and covers most employees. Equal Pay Act (1963) –An amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act designed to require equal pay for women doing the same work as men.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–7 Who Is Exempt? Who Is Not Exempt? Figure 11–1 Exempt Professionals Attorneys Physicians Dentists Pharmacists Optometrists Architects Engineers Teachers Certified public accountants Scientists Computer systems analysts Exempt Executives Corporate officers Department heads Superintendents General managers Individual who is in sole charge of an independent establishment or branch Exempt Administrators Executive assistant to the president Personnel directors Credit managers Purchasing agents Nonexempt Paralegals Nonlicensed accountants Accounting clerks Newspaper writers Working foreman/forewoman Working supervisor Lead worker Management trainees Secretaries Clerical employees Inspectors Statisticians Source: Jeffrey Friedman, The Fair Labor Standards Act Today: A Primer, Compensation, January/February 2002, p. 53. Note: These lists are general in nature, and exceptions exist. Any questionable allocation of exemption status should be reviewed by labor legal counsel.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–8 Overview of Compensation Laws (contd) Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) –The law that provides government protection of pensions for all employees with company pension plans. It also regulates vesting rights (employees who leave before retirement may claim compensation from the pension plan). The Age Discrimination in Employment Act –Prohibits age discrimination against employees who are 40 years of age and older in all aspects of employment, including compensation.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–9 Overview of Compensation Laws (contd) The Americans with Disabilities Act –Prohibits discrimination against qualified persons with disabilities in all aspects of employment, including compensation. The Family and Medical Leave Act –Entitles eligible employees, both men and women, to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave for the birth of a child or for the care of a child, spouse, or parent.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–10 Independent Contractor Figure 11–2 Source: Reprinted with permission of the publisher, HRnext.com. Copyright HRnext.com, 2003.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–11 Corporate Policies, Competitive Strategy, and Compensation Aligned reward strategy –The employers basic task is to create a bundle of rewardsa total reward packagespecifically aimed at eliciting the employee behaviors the firm needs to support and achieve its competitive strategy. –The HR or compensation manager will write the policies in conjunction with top management, in a manner such that the policies are consistent with the firms strategic aims.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–12 Developing an Aligned Reward Strategy Table 11–1 Questions to Ask: 1. What are our companys key success factors? What must our company do to be successful in fulfilling its mission or achieving its desired competitive position? 2. What are the employee behaviors or actions necessary to successfully implement this competitive strategy? 3. What compensation programs should we use to reinforce those behaviors? What should be the purpose of each program in reinforcing each desired behavior? 4. What measurable requirements should each compensation program meet to be deemed successful in fulfilling its purpose? 5. How well do our current compensation programs match these requirements? Source: Jack Dolmat-Connell, Developing a Reward Strategy that Delivers Shareholder and Employee Value, Compensation and Benefits Review, March–April 1999, p. 51.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–13 Compensation Policy Issues Pay for performance Pay for seniority The pay cycle Salary increases and promotions Overtime and shift pay Probationary pay Paid and unpaid leaves Paid holidays Salary compression Geographic costs of living differences
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–14 Compensation Policy Issues (contd) Salary compression –A salary inequity problem, generally caused by inflation, resulting in longer-term employees in a position earning less than workers entering the firm today.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–15 Equity and Its Impact on Pay Rates The equity theory of motivation –States that if a person perceives an inequity, the person will be motivated to reduce or eliminate the tension and perceived inequity.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–16 Forms of Equity External equity –How a jobs pay rate in one company compares to the jobs pay rate in other companies. Internal equity –How fair the jobs pay rate is, when compared to other jobs within the same company Individual equity –How fair an individuals pay as compared with what his or her co-workers are earning for the same or very similar jobs within the company. Procedural equity –The perceived fairness of the process and procedures to make decisions regarding the allocation of pay.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–17 Methods to Address Equity Issues Salary surveys –To monitor and maintain external equity. Job analysis and job evaluation –To maintain internal equity, Performance appraisal and incentive pay –To maintain individual equity. Communications, grievance mechanisms, and employees participation –To help ensure that employees view the pay process as transparent and fair.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–18 Establishing Pay Rates Step 1. The salary survey –Aimed at determining prevailing wage rates. A good salary survey provides specific wage rates for specific jobs. –Formal written questionnaire surveys are the most comprehensive, but telephone surveys and newspaper ads are also sources of information. Benchmark job: A job that is used to anchor the employers pay scale and around which other jobs are arranged in order of relative worth.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–19 Sources for Salary Surveys Consulting firms Professional associations Government agencies –U.S. Department of Labors Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) conducts three annual surveys: Area wage surveys Industry wage surveys Professional, administrative, technical, and clerical (PATC) surveys.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–20 Some Pay Data Web Sites Table 11–2 *An alliance between recruiters Korn/Ferry International and the Wall Street Journal.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–21 Establishing Pay Rates (contd) Step 2. Job evaluation –A systematic comparison done in order to determine the worth of one job relative to another. Compensable factor –A fundamental, compensable element of a job, such as skills, effort, responsibility, and working conditions.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–22 Preparing for the Job Evaluation Identifying the need for the job evaluation Getting the cooperation of employees Choosing an evaluation committee. Performing the actual evaluation.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–23 Job Evaluation Methods: Ranking Ranking each job relative to all other jobs, usually based on some overall factor. Steps in job ranking: –Obtain job information. –Select and group jobs. –Select compensable factors. –Rank jobs. –Combine ratings.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–24 Job Ranking by Olympia Health Care Table 11–3
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–25 Job Evaluation Methods: Job Classification Raters categorize jobs into groups or classes of jobs that are of roughly the same value for pay purposes. –Classes contain similar jobs. –Grades are jobs that are similar in difficulty but otherwise different. –Jobs are classed by the amount or level of compensable factors they contain.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–26 Example of A Grade Level Definition Figure 11–3 This is a summary chart of the key grade level criteria for the GS-7 level of clerical and assistance work. Do not use this chart alone for classification purposes; additional grade level criteria are in the Web- based chart. Source: gscler.pdf. August 29, 2001.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–27 Job Evaluation Methods: Point Method A quantitative technique that involves: –Identifying the degree to which each compensable factors are present in the job. –Awarding points for each degree of each factor. –Calculating a total point value for the job by adding up the corresponding points for each factor.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–28 Job Evaluation Methods: Factor Comparison Each job is ranked several timesonce for each of several compensable factors. The rankings for each job are combined into an overall numerical rating for the job.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–29 Computerized Job Evaluations A computerized system that uses a structured questionnaire and statistical models to streamline the job evaluation process. –Advantages of computer-aided job evaluation (CAJE) Simplify job analysis Help keep job descriptions up to date Increase evaluation objectivity Reduce the time spent in committee meetings Ease the burden of system maintenance
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–30 Establishing Pay Rates (contd) Step 3. Group Similar Jobs into Pay Grades –A pay grade is comprised of jobs of approximately equal difficulty or importance as established by job evaluation. Point method: the pay grade consists of jobs falling within a range of points. Ranking method: the grade consists of all jobs that fall within two or three ranks. Classification method: automatically categorizes jobs into classes or grades.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–31 Establishing Pay Rates (contd) Step 4. Price Each Pay Grade Wage Curve –Shows the pay rates currently paid for jobs in each pay grade, relative to the points or rankings assigned to each job or grade by the job evaluation. –Shows the relationships between the value of the job as determined by one of the job evaluation methods and the current average pay rates for your grades.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–32 Plotting a Wage Curve Figure 11–4
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–33 Establishing Pay Rates (contd) Step 5. Fine-tune pay rates –Developing pay ranges Flexibility in meeting external job market rates Easier for employees to move into higher pay grades Allows for rewarding performance differences and seniority –Correcting out-of-line rates Raising underpaid jobs to the minimum of the rate range for their pay grade. Freezing rates or cutting pay rates for overpaid (red circle) jobs to maximum in the pay range for their pay grade.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–34 Wage Structure Figure 11–5 Note: This shows overlapping wage classes and maximum–minimum wage ranges.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–35 Federal Government Pay Schedule: Grades GS-8–GS-10, New York, Northern New Jersey, Long Island, January 2000 Table 11–4 Source:
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–36 Compensation Administration Checklist Figure 11–6 Source: Reprinted with permission of the publisher, HRnext.com. Copyright HRnext.com, A good compensation administration program is comprehensive and flexible and ensures optimum performance from employees at all levels. The following checklist may be used to evaluate a companys program. The more questions answered yes, the more thorough has been the planning for compensation administration.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–37 Pricing Managerial and Professional Jobs Compensating managers –Base pay: fixed salary, guaranteed bonuses. –Short-term incentives: cash or stock bonuses –Long-term incentives: stock options –Executive benefits and perks: retirement plans, life insurance, and health insurance without a deductible or coinsurance.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–38 Pricing Managerial and Professional Jobs What Really Determines Executive Pay? –CEO pay is set by the board of directors taking into account factors such as the business strategy, corporate trends, and where they want to be in a short and long term. –Firms pay CEOs based on the complexity of the jobs they filled. –Boards are reducing the relative importance of base salary while boosting the emphasis on performance-based pay.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–39 Compensating Professional Employees Employers can use job evaluation for professional jobs. Compensable factors focus on problem solving, creativity, job scope, and technical knowledge and expertise. Firms use the point method and factor comparison methods, although job classification seems most popular. Professional jobs are market-priced to establish the values for benchmark jobs.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–40 What Is Competency-based Pay? Competency-based pay –Where the company pays for the employees range, depth, and types of skills and knowledge, rather than for the job title he or she holds. Competencies –Demonstrable characteristics of a person, including knowledge, skills, and behaviors, that enable performance.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–41 Why Use Competency-Based Pay? Traditional pay plans may actually backfire if a high-performance work system is the goal. Paying for skills, knowledge, and competencies is more strategic. Measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies are the heart of any companys performance management process.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–42 Competency-Based Pay in Practice Main components of skill/competency/ knowledge–based pay programs: –A system that defines specific skills, and a process for tying the persons pay to his or her skill –A training system that lets employees seek and acquire skills –A formal competency testing system –A work design that lets employees move among jobs to permit work assignment flexibility.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–43 Competency-Based Pay: Pros and Cons Pros –Higher quality –Lower absenteeism and fewer accidents Cons –Pay program implementation problems –Cost implications of paying for unused knowledge, skills and behaviors –Complexity of program –Uncertainty that the program improves productivity
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–44 Other Compensation Trends Broadbanding –Consolidating salary grades and ranges into just a few wide levels or bands, each of which contains a relatively wide range of jobs and salary levels. Wide bands provide for more flexibility in assigning workers to different job grades. Lack of permanence in job responsibilities can be unsettling to new employees.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–45 Broadbanded Structure and How It Relates to Traditional Pay Grades and Ranges Figure 11–7
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–46 Strategic Compensation Strategic compensation –Using the compensation plan to support the companys strategic aims. –Focuses employees attention on the values of winning, execution, and speed, and on being better, faster, and more competitive.. IBMs strategic compensation plan: –The marketplace rules. –Fewer jobs, evaluated differently, in broadbands. –Managers manage. –Big stakes for stakeholders.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–47 Comparable Worth Comparable worth –Refers to the requirement to pay men and women equal wages for jobs that are of comparable (rather than strictly equal) value to the employer. –Seeks to address the issue that women have jobs that are dissimilar to those of men and those jobs often consistently valued less than mens jobs.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–48 Compensation and Women Factors lowering the earnings of women: –Womens starting salaries are traditionally lower. –Salary increases for women in professional jobs do not reflect their above-average performance. –In white-collar jobs, men change jobs more frequently, enabling them to be promoted to higher-level jobs over women with more seniority. –In blue-collar jobs, women tend to be placed in departments with lower-paying jobs.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–49 Figure 11–8 HR Scorecard for Hotel Paris International Corporation* Note: *(An abbreviated example showing selected HR practices and outcomes aimed at implementing the competitive strategy, To use superior guest services to differentiate the Hotel Paris properties and thus increase the length of stays and the return rate of guests and thus boost revenues and profitability)
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–50 Key Terms employee compensation direct financial payments indirect financial payments Davis-Bacon Act (1931) Walsh-Healey Public Contract Act (1936) Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act Fair Labor Standards Act (1938) Equal Pay Act (1963) Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) salary compression salary survey benchmark job job evaluation compensable factor ranking method job classification (or grading) method classes grades grade definition point method factor comparison method pay grade wage curve pay ranges competency-based pay competencies broadbanding comparable worth
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama t e n t h e d i t i o n Gary Dessler Chapter 11 Part 4 Compensation Quantitative Job Evaluation Methods Appendix
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–52 Quantitative Job Evaluation Methods Factor Comparison Job Evaluation Method –Step 1. Obtain job information –Step 2. Select key benchmark jobs –Step 3. Rank key jobs by factor –Step 4. Distribute wage rates by factors –Step 5. Rank key jobs according to wages assigned to each factor –Step 6. Compare the two sets of rankings to screen out unusable key jobs –Step 7. Construct the job-comparison scale –Step 8. Use the job-comparison scale
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–53 Sample Definitions of Factors Typically Used in the Factor Comparison Method Figure 11–A1 1.Mental Requirements Either the possession of and/or the active application of the following: A. (inherent) Mental traits, such as intelligence, memory, reasoning, facility in verbal expression, ability to get along with people, and imagination. B. (acquired) General education, such as grammar and arithmetic; or general information as to sports, world events, etc. C. (acquired) Specialized knowledge such as chemistry, engineering, accounting, advertising, etc. 2. Skill A. (acquired) Facility in muscular coordination, as in operating machines, repetitive movements, careful coordinations, dexterity, assembling, sorting, etc. B. (acquired) Specific job knowledge necessary to the muscular coordination only; acquired by performance of the work and not to be confused with general education or specialized knowledge. It is very largely training in the interpretation of sensory impressions. Examples 1. In operating an adding machine, the knowledge of which key to depress for a subtotal would be skill. 2. In automobile repair, the ability to determine the significance of a knock in the motor would be skill. 3. In hand-firing a boiler, the ability to determine from the appearance of the firebed how coal should be shoveled over the surface would be skill. 3. Physical Requirements A. Physical effort, such as sitting, standing, walking, climbing, pulling, lifting, etc.; both the amount exercised and the degree of the continuity should be taken into account. B. Physical status, such as age, height, weight, sex, strength, and eyesight. Source: Jay L. Otis and Richard H. Leukart, Job Evaluation: A Basis for Sound Wage Administration, p. 181.© 1954, revised Reprinted by permission of Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–54 Sample Definitions of Five Factors Typically Used in the Factor Comparison Method Figure 11–A1 (contd) Source: Jay L. Otis and Richard H. Leukart, Job Evaluation: A Basis for Sound Wage Administration, p. 181.© 1954, revised Reprinted by permission of Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. 4.Responsibilities A. For raw materials, processed materials, tools, equipment, and property. B. For money or negotiable securities. C. For profits or loss, savings or methods improvement. D. For public contact. E. For records. F. For supervision. 1. Primarily the complexity of supervision given to subordinates; the number of subordinates is a secondary feature. Planning, direction, coordination, instruction, control, and approval characterize this kind of supervision. 2.Also, the degree of supervision received. If Jobs A and B gave no supervision to subordinates, but A received much closer immediate supervision than B, then B would be entitled to a higher rating than A in the supervision factor. To summarize the four degrees of supervision: Highest degreegives muchgets little High degreegives muchgets much Low degreegives nonegets little Lowest degreegives nonegets much 5.Working Conditions A. Environmental influences such as atmosphere, ventilation, illumination, noise, congestion, fellow workers, etc. B. Hazardsfrom the work or its surroundings. C. Hours.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–55 Ranking Key Jobs by Factors 1 Table 11–A1
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–56 Ranking Key Jobs by Wage Rates 1 Figure 11–A2
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–57 Comparison of Factor and Wage Rankings Figure 11–A3
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–58 Job (Factor)-Comparison Scale Figure 11–A4
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–59 The Point Method of Job Evaluation Step 1. Determine clusters of jobs to be evaluated Step 2. Collect job information Step 3. Select compensable factors Step 4. Define compensable factors Step 5. Define factor degrees Step 6. Determine relative values of factors
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–60 Example of One Factor (Complexity/Problem Solving) in a Point Factor System Figure 11–A2 Source: Richard W. Beatty and James R. Beatty,Job Evaluation, in Ronald A. Berk (ed.), Performance Assessment: Methods and Applications (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986), p. 322.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–61 Evaluation Points Assigned to Factors and Degrees Figure 11–A5
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