Cathedral church of St. Peter at Westminster, almost always called Westminster abbey - gothic church in the city of Westminster (London), to the west of the palace of Westminster. Built with breaks with 1245 in 1745 years, but the shape keeps gothic. The traditional place of coronation of the monarchs of the united kingdom and the graves of the monarchs of England. Along with the nearby church of St. Margaret abbey given the status of the World heritage.
W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y With their identical square towers and openwork arches of the ancient abbey in the English gothic style is one of the brightest examples of the medieval church architecture. But for the English it is much more: it is a sanctuary of the nation, a symbol of everything, for which he fought and are fighting the British, and here is the place, where was crowned by a big part of the rulers of the country, many of whom are buried here.
W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y Edward the Confessor was founded the Benedictine abbey in 1065 year in this place, overlooking the square of the Parliament. Presumably, the first king of England, who was crowned here, Harold was in January Defeated him at the battle of Hastings William the Conqueror was crowned here in the same year, and the first record in the abbey witnessed it. The traditions of the coronation survived till our times. Early English gothic structure of the building of the abbey in the greater degree is obliged to Henry III, than any of the other rulers, although many architects, including TO. Rehn, have made their contribution to the appearance of the abbey.
W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y The abbot and monks, in close proximity to the royal Palace of Westminster, the seat of government from the later 12th century, became a powerful force in the centuries after the Norman Conquest: the abbot often was employed on royal service and in due course took his place in the House of Lords as of right. Released from the burdens of spiritual leadership, which passed to the reformed Cluniac movement after the mid-tenth century, and occupied with the administration of great landed properties, some of which lay far from Westminster, "the Benedictines achieved a remarkable degree of identification with the secular life of their times, and particularly with upper-class life", Barbara Harvey concludes, to the extent that her depiction of daily life provides a wider view of the concerns of the English gentry in the High and Late Middle Ages.abbotHouse of LordsCluniac movementHighLate Middle Ages
W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y The proximity of the Palace of Westminster did not extend to providing monks or abbots with high royal connections; in social origin the Benedictines of Westminster were as modest as most of the order. The abbot remained Lord of the Manor of Westminster as a town of two to three thousand persons grew around it: as a consumer and employer on a grand scale the monastery helped fuel the town economy, and relations with the town remained unusually cordial, but no enfranchising charter was issued during the Middle Ages. The Abbey built shops and dwellings on the west side, encroaching upon the sanctuaryLord of the Manor
W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y The abbey became the coronation site of Norman kings, but none were buried there until Henry III, intensely devoted to the cult of the Confessor, rebuilt the abbey in Anglo-French Gothic style as a shrine to honour Saint Edward the Confessor and as a suitably regal setting for Henry's own tomb, under the highest Gothic nave in England. The Confessor's shrine subsequently played a great part in his canonisation. The work continued between 1245 and 1517 and was largely finished by the architect Henry Yevele in the reign of Richard II. Henry VII added a Perpendicular style chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1503 (known as the Henry VII Chapel). Much of the stone came from Caen, in France (Caen stone), the Isle of Portland (Portland stone) and the Loire Valley region of France (tuffeau limestone). Anglo-French Gothic stylenavecanonisation Henry YeveleRichard IIHenry VII Perpendicular styleBlessed Virgin MaryHenry VII ChapelCaenCaen stone Isle of PortlandPortland stoneLoire Valleytuffeau limestone