In the XX century sociological science has undergone considerable changes. Modern sociology presents an extremely complex system of theories, conceptions, hypotheses, methods and ways of investigating social phenomena. Of importance is the fact that the evolution of main perspectives and schools of modern Western sociology went along simultaneously on its three levels: Theoretic Applied (прикладной) Empiric (ЭМПИРИЧЕСКИЙ, основанный на опыте, изучении фактов, опирающийся на непосредственное наблюдение? эксперимент. )
Most actively sociology developed in the USA to meet some significant (существенный) needs; first, to extend beyond the framework of the European tradition, second, due to the necessities required by a fast development of American industrial society and practical implementation of newly appeared social problems. American sociology is represented by numerous schools and directions and the Chicago school is one of them. When the University of Chicago was founded in 1892, it established the nations first department of sociology. The study of sociology was still a relatively undeveloped field, but by the 1920s the department had become nationally famous as the department pioneered research on urban studies, poverty, the family, the workplace, immigrants, ethnic and race relations, and developed important research methods using mapping and survey techniques. From the 1920s to the 1930s, Urban sociology was almost synonymous with the work of the Chicago school.
The major researchers in this school included William Thomas, Florian Znaniecki, Robert Park, Louis Wirth, Ernest Burgess, Everett Hughes, and Robert McKenzie. The books which opened the school were The City: Suggestion for the Investigation of Human Behaviour in the City Environment by R. Park and a big monograph Polish peasant (крестьянин) in Europe and America by F. Znaniecki and W. Thomas.William Thomas Florian ZnanieckiRobert Park Louis WirthErnest Burgess Everett HughesRobert McKenzie
Structural functionalism Talcott Parsons ( ), a central figure at Harvard University who was the best-known sociologist in the United States, and one of the best-known celebrities in the world for many years. Structural functionalism occupies an intermediate position between classical and contemporary sociology.sociologistUnited States The Structure of Social Action (1937) The Social System (1951)
Structural Functionalism functionalists argue that we need to look at both structure (how the parts of a society fit together to make the whole) and function (what each part does, how it contributes to society).
Structural functionalism is built on two emphases: 1) application of the scientific method to the objective social world and 2) use of an analogy between the humans organism and society. The emphasis on the scientific method leads to the assertion that one can study social world in the same way as one can study physical world. Thus, functionalists see social world as objectively real, observable with such techniques as social surveys and interviews. In this way functionalism was not new as many of these ideas go back to E. Durkheim who was one of the first sociologists to make use of scientific and statistical techniques in sociological research. The second emphasis, a key to T. Parsons theory, is on the organic unity of the society, i.e. each society is a system of social structures (economic, legal, educational, gender ones) with certain needs which must be met by social institutions for a social system to exist. Goods and services must be produced and distributed in order for people to survive, there must be some administration of justice, a political system must exist, and some family structure must operate to provide a means to reproduce the population and maintain social life on a daily basis. In the structural functional model, individuals carry out these tasks in various institutions and roles that are consistent with the structures and norms of the society.E. Durkheim
Four functional imperatives that every group or society tends to fulfill are often coded as AGIL: adaptation to the physical and social milieu; goal attainment, which is the need to define primary goals and enlist people to strive to attain these goals; integration, the coordination of the society or group as a cohesive whole; latency, maintaining the motivation of people to perform their roles according to social expectations.
As for T. Parsons, he also contributed to the field of social evolutionism. He divided evolution into four subprocesses:social evolutionismevolution division, which creates functional subsystems from the main system adaptation, where those systems evolve (развивать) into more efficient versions inclusion of elements previously excluded from the given systems generalization of values, increasing the legitimization (узаконивание) of the ever more complex system.
Structural Functionalism Robert Merton (1910 – 2003) American Sociologist Merton believed that actions sometimes are composed of two components 1. Manifest Function: Open, stated, conscious functions 2. Latent Function: Unconscious or covert functions and may reflect hidden purposes Merton believed that there was also dysfunctions which undermine the a systems equilibrium A dysfunction is an element or process that actually may disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability
Sociological positivism of P.A. Sorokin Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin ( ) a migrant from Russia, was one of the most colorful, erudite and controversial figures in American sociology.
After coming to the USA P.A. Sorokin started working at the University of Minnesota. Fame came to him there after he had written six books in six years; four of them defined their fields at the time: Social Mobility (1927), Contemporary Sociological Theories (1928), Principles of Rural-Urban Sociology (1929) and A Systematic Source Book in Rural Sociology (1929). Then P.A. Sorokin worked at Harvard University where he explored a lot of different directions. He came to Harvard as a positivistic, comparative and scientific sociologist thats why his doctrine is called sociological positivism. His monumental work, Social and Cultural Dynamics ( ) spanned over 2,500 years and attempted to isolate the principles of social change. The problems described in Dynamics took P.A. Sorokin to the analysis of civilizations crisis and social, political and economic calamities inherent (врожденные бедствия) in modern culture. Diagnosing the times as those of a decaying sensate civilization, the sociologist speculated that world was moving towards a difficult and bloody period of transition. For the next twenty years he wrote mainly on war, integralism and altruism. As a humanistic scholar, he wanted to understand the conditions which led to war and the methods by which they could be treated and reduced. Similar values informed his later works on revolution and institutional violence.
Another merit by P.A. Sorokin is his theory of social stratification and social mobility. It states that the society is divided into strata (layers) that differentiate from each other by their wealth, activities, political views, cultural orientations etc. Thus, they serve as the basis for identifying the main forms of social stratification such as economic, political and occupational ones. Social mobility is understood as any transition of an individual or social object from one social position to another. There are two principal types of social mobility, horizontal and vertical. Horizontal mobility, or shifting, is a transition of a person or social object from one social group to another situated on the same level. Transitions of individuals from one family (as a husband or wife) to another by divorce and remarriage, from one factory to another in the same occupational status, are all instances of horizontal mobility. So, too, are transitions of social objects, such as fashion, scientific or political ideas from the country of origin to other ones. In all these cases, shifting may take place without any noticeable change of the social position of a person or social object in the horizontal direction. Vertical mobility is a transition of a person or a social object from one social stratum to another which is accompanied with noticeable changes in his or its characteristics.
One more problem P.A. Sorokin tried to solve is that of social equality. He considered necessary to provide an individual with as much material and spiritual wealth as much socially useful labour he invested (or by his merit). The egalitarian system of any society (social equality) suggests everybodys equality to be subject to law, equal rights to occupy public posts, equal political rights (as those of freedom of speech, conscious, union etc.) and equal rights to education. Though P.A. Sorokin had a lasting influence on methods and theory in social sciences and his views were respected, academic conflicts affected his career. His professional interactions also brought him into conflict with Talcott Parsons. He set himself in direct opposition to both the Chicago School and Social Darwinism, considering them too philosophical and too unconcerned with real- world issues.
CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE Influenced by Karl Marxs work. Conflict perspective assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension among competing groups. Sociologists use the conflict model not only on economic conflicts but also on conflicts that have no clear economic basis, conflicts over values, ethics, and behavior. Conflict theorists are interested in the kind of changes that conflict can bring about
Social conflict theory Conflict theory is an extension of the sociological theory that discusses various social issues leading to conflict in any society. Numerous theorists worked on different issues and provided their conflict theory, which is directly or indirectly related to the society. Conflict theory was elaborated, for instance, in Britain by M. Gluckman and J. Rex, in the USA by Ch. Mills, L. Coser and R. Collins, and in Germany (later the UK) by R. Dahrendorf, all of them being more or less influenced by K. Marx, L. Gumplovicz, V. Pareto, G. Simmel and other founder fathers of European sociology.M. GluckmanR. DahrendorfMarxGumploviczParetoSimmel Social conflict is a confrontation of social powers. So, conflict theory is related to the society and organization whereby each individual participates with his group in the struggle to maximize its benefit to bring any social change in the society. Such changes include political change, social change or revolutions. Hence conflict theory is best applied to explain the conflicts between social classes and clash of ideologies within the society like socialism. The theory attempts to refute functionalism that considers societies and organizations function harmoniously so that each individual and group plays a specific role, like organs in the body.confrontationsocial powers functionalism
The basic elements of conflict within a class society: interests commonly presented in various groups of the society power that develops inequalities and leads to coercion among various groups of the society coercion related to the unequal distribution of resources within various classes of the society that develops different power groups. This aspect is related to the clash of ideologies and conflicting values among various classes of the society
Charles Mills ( ) a professor of Columbia University, is the one who elaborated the methodological principles of conflict theory. In his works, The Power Elite (1956), The Sociological Imagination (1959) Ch. Mills was especially critical of structural functionalism because it rejected the idea of antagonism, rebel, revolution, and suggested the idea that harmony of interests was natural for any society. He didnt deny that order, stability, harmony are needed by a class in power but social life is full of both disorders and conflicts, and is always instable. Ch. Mills considers social conflict a natural component of the social organism.
Ralf Dahrendorf (1929 – 2009) Dahrendorf asserted that conflict can be regulated through negotiations, mediation, arbitrage etc. The acuteness of the conflict and efficiency of its regulation depend on the type of the social structure and level of its openness. A democratic, open, highly mobile society is most adequate for the regulation of conflicts as in such a society conflicts are extremely formalized. Dahrendorf believes in a system where managers belonging to various classes of the society actually control economy of various industries and business corporations. At the same time, he believes that in modern society economic division of power is altered due to unequal distribution of resources, and that allows the middle class to grow side by side. This is basically a result from changing trends of globalization and regionalism.
Social psychology Social psychology is a sub-discipline of both sociology and psychology. If sociology deals with social categories and groups, psychology – with individuals, social psychology involves the intersection of the social and the individual where the individual is influenced by the social and, in turn, interacts with the social and influences on it as well. Another way of looking at social psychology is that it is the study of how micro- and macro-social phenomena – the individual and society – interact. Social psychology tries to answer the following questions: How does an individual develop his self-concept or personality? Or, how do social situations affect the way a person thinks or acts?
Symbolic interactionism or theory of symbolic interaction, has a long intellectual history, beginning with the German sociologist and economist Max Weber and American philosophers Charles Cooley ( ) and George Mead ( ), who emphasized the subjective meaning of human behaviour, the social process and pragmatism. It was later developed by Herbert Blumer, who is responsible for coining the term, symbolic interactionism, as well as for formulating the most prominent version of the theory. It also continues to develop and grow popular today. Symbolic interactionism explains how individuals are socialized through social interactions with others. In the process of developing a self, or personality, language and other symbols and values become meaningful through social interaction with significant others, primary groups, reference groups and generalized others. Through this process of interactions, individuals also learn roles that they play as they act in their social groups and in the larger society. For instance, if a lecturer sees a students raised hand, he interpret it as a sign to stop the lecture and get to know whether the student wants to ask a question on the issue or ask for permission to leave the class. Somebodys raised hand in another situation or in another culture may be interpreted in a different way.
SYMBOLIC-INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVES George Herbert Mead American Sociologist ( ) is regarded as the founder of the interactionist perspective Symbolic interactionists view symbols- things that we attach meaning- as the basis of social life. A symbol is something representing something else: symbols range from words and language to nonverbal gestures and signs.
Symbolic interactionism According to symbolic interaction, people attach meanings to each others words and actions Their actions and attitudes, are not determined by some action in and of itself To understand individual behavior, the interactionist tries to look at the world though the eyes of the actors involved and see how they define themselves and their environment. This understanding of the of the conditions in which we find ourselves, known as the definition of the situation
Sociometry Sociometry is based on the fact that people make choices in interpersonal relationships. Whenever people gather, they make choices – where to sit or stand; choices about who is perceived as friendly and who is not, who is central to the group, who is rejected, who is isolated. So measurement of relationships can be useful not only in assessment of behaviour within a group, but also for interventions to bring about positive change. For a labour group, sociometry can be a powerful tool for reducing a conflict and improving communications because it allows the group to see itself objectively and analyze its own dynamics. It can also be applied to identify informal leaders, social rankings and isolated individuals as it shows the patterns of how individuals associate with each other when acting as a group toward a specified end or goal. Among sociometric tools of frequent use are various tests, sociomatrix and sociograms. When members of a group are asked to choose others in the group, everyone in the group makes a choice and describes why he does so. From these choices a description (a drawing, like a map) called a sociogram emerges. The data for the sociogram may also be displayed as a table or matrix of each persons choices. Jacob Levy Moreno ( )
Phenomenology Phenomenology is another approach to sociological theory that has been gaining popularity. The approach is based on the ideas of Edmund Husserl ( ), a German philosopher, who insisted that the phenomena we encounter in sensory perceptions are the ultimate source of all knowledge. His perspective was brought to the United States by sociologist Alfred Schutz ( ) and developed further by Harold Garfinkel (b. 1917). Another important development in phenomenological thinking can be found in works by Thomas Luckmann (b. 1927) and Peter Berger (b. 1929), whose landmark book, The Social Construction of Reality (1966), has been widely influential, especially among contemporary feminists. P. Berger is perhaps best known for his view that sociology is a form of consciousness. Central to his work is the relationship between the society and the individual. In his book, The Social Construction of Reality P. Berger develops a sociological theory society as objective reality and as subjective reality. His analysis of the society as subjective reality studies how reality has produced and keeps producing individuals. He writes about how new humans concepts or inventions become a part of our reality (a process he calls reification). His conception of social structure resolving around the importance of language the most important sign system of human society, is similar to G. Hegels conception of Geist.sociologyconsciousnesssociety individualreificationsocial structurelanguageHegelGeist
Postmodernism Postmodernism is a perspective developed on the French intellectual scene, that has had considerable influence on American sociologists in recent years. Contrasted by modernism, whose authors attempted to come to new terms with old ideas in attempt to find the deep structure of the human experience, postmodernism is identifiable by authors who were highly skeptical of any deep structure, regarding all structures as subjective and ideologically tainted.
So modern sociology can be viewed not as an integral mono-science but as a broad scientific movement aimed at studying various social problems faced by industrialized countries. Sociology is in a theoretical ferment, as sociologist seek new ways to understand the formidable complexity of the social world. So the students point is not to memorize all these names, but to be aware of the multiple points of view and theoretical differences among contemporary sociologists.
Feminism Feminism, though not a unified theory, is among the most influential of current theoretical perspectives. Focusing their analyses on gender inequalities and on the institution of patriarchy, feminists have sought to understand the society from the standpoint of women. Feminists have criticized all three of the traditionally dominant theoretical perspectives – functionalism, symbolic interactionism and conflict theory – as biased toward male points of view. However, the feminist movement has also had its limitations. Most feminists have been white middle-class women, and feminist literature from the early days of the movement ( ) often neglected the concerns of working-class women and women of colour. In recent years, however, some feminists have begun to analyze the ways that race, class, and gender inequalities intersect. For instance, Patricia Hill Collins in her book, Black Feminist Thought (1990), argues that the common experiences of African American women have given them a unique perspective on social theory. Feminists come in a variety of theoretical stripes. Early feminists divided themselves up into liberal, radical, or socialist camps, depending on their political points of view. Today, many feminist sociologists continue to draw heavily on the conflict theory tradition, while many others have been influenced by symbolic interactionism. A few even call themselves functionalists or rational choice theorists. Collins
BASIC CONCEPTS AGIL – Adaptation, Goal attainment, Integration, Latency (by T. Parsons). Anarchism – a political belief that the society should have no government, laws, police, or other authority, but should be a free association of all its members. Behaviourism – a movement which sees human behaviour as something which can be moulded by punishment and reward. Chicago school of sociology – refers to a group of sociologists at the University of Chicago who made the first major attempt to study the urban environment by combined efforts of theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago. They pioneered research on urban studies, poverty, the family, the workplace, immigrants, ethnic and race relations, developed important research methods using mapping and survey techniques. In s, urban sociology was almost synonymous with the work of the Chicago school. The major researchers in this school included William Thomas, Florian Znaniecki, Robert Park, Louis Wirth, Ernest Burgess, Everett Hughes, and Robert McKenzie.University of ChicagoethnographicfieldworkChicago surban sociologyWilliam ThomasFlorian ZnanieckiRobert ParkLouis WirthErnest BurgessEverett HughesRobert McKenzie Discrimination – unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice. Discrimination Elite – a selected group of people whose personal abilities, specialized training or other attributes place them at the top of any field. Elitism – a belief or attitude that elite are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken most seriously, or who are alone fit to govern.
Feminism – a doctrine that advocates social equality of the sexes; political, social, and cultural movement dedicated to promoting equal rights for women in all aspects of life. Gemeinschaft (by F. Toennis) – a group formed around an essential will of an actor who sees himself as a means to serve the goals of the social group; community. Gesellschaft (by F. Toennis) – a group formed around the arbitrary will of an actor who sees a social group as a means to further his individual goals, so it is purposive and future-oriented; society. Goal attainment – the need to define primary goals and enlist individuals to strive to attain these goals. Hawthorne experiments – studies at Western Electrics Hawthorne plant outside Chicago ( ), which were intended to bring about a greater understanding of the effects of working conditions, wages and other social factors on worker productivity.Western Electric Ideal type (by M. Weber) – a type formed of characteristics and elements of the given phenomena but it is not meant to correspond to all of the characteristics of a particular case.phenomena Integration – the coordination of the society or group as a cohesive whole. Latency – maintaining the motivation of individuals to perform their roles according to social expectations.
Marxist sociology – materialistic interpretation of history influenced by G. Hegels claim that reality (and history) should be viewed dialectically, through a clash of opposing forces.dialectically Pareto index – a measure of the inequality of income distribution. Pareto index Phenomenology – a philosophical doctrine proposed by Edmund Husserl based on the study of human experience in which considerations of objective reality are not taken into account. Populism – a doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite. Populism Positivism – a dominant theory in sociology of the XIX century that genuine knowledge is acquired by science and that metaphysical speculation has no validity. It was based largely on the ideas of the French philosopher Auguste Comte, which were further elaborated in works of D. Mills, H. Spenser and other researchers. Postmodernism – contrasted by modernism, whose authors attempted to come to new terms with old ideas in attempt to find the deep structure of the human experience, postmodernism is identifiable by authors who were highly skeptical of any deep structure, regarding all structures as subjective and ideologically tainted. Rationalization – the move away from supernatural to rational and empirical modes of thought. Social conflict – a confrontation of social powers.confrontationsocial powers Social Darwinism – an attempt to adapt Charles Darwin natural selection principles to human society, thus producing a culture that embraces the survival of the fittest. Natural selection, when applied to a society, also includes such factors as organizational ability, talent to inspire others, creativity, perseverance, mental flexibility, etc., in addition to physical fitness.
Social exchange theory – a theory that focuses on the exchanges that cohere individuals with each other and with groups; it is based on a central premise that the exchange of social and material resources is a fundamental form of human interaction. Social equality – everybodys equality to be subject to law, equal rights to occupy public posts, equal political rights (as those of freedom of speech, conscious, union etc.) and equal rights to education (by P.A. Sorokin). Social mobility – any transition of an individual or social object from one social position to another. Social psychology – a sub-discipline of both sociology and psychology which involves the intersection of the social and the individual where the individual is influenced by the social and, in turn, interacts with the social and affects it as well. Social stratification – division of the society into strata (layers) that differentiate from each other by their wealth, activities, political views, cultural orientations etc. Sociometry – the quantitative study of social relationships; a way of measuring the degree of interpersonal relationships between people. Structural functionalism – a theoretical perspective headed by T. Parsons with a particular emphasis on function, interdependence, consensus, equilibrium, and evolutionary change. The structure part of the approach is that institutions and structures exist in the society as a whole. The functional part is that different parts of each society contribute positively to the operation or functioning of the system as a whole. These parts usually work together in an orderly manner, without great conflict. Different parts are usually in equilibrium, or moving toward equilibrium, with consensus rather than conflict governing the inter-relationships of the various parts. Change tends to be orderly and evolutionary, rather than revolutionary or with dramatic structural breaks. Symbolic interactionism – a sociological perspective which studies how individuals and groups interact, focusing on the creation of personal identity through interaction with others. Of particular interest is the relationship between individual action and group pressures. Weberian sociology – a doctrine elaborated by M. Weber which is based on the concept of social action understood as behaviour to which humans attach a specific meaning or set of meanings; it is to interpret and suggest understanding of what subjective motives of human actions are, thats why Weberian sociology is called Interpretive or Understanding sociology.