Sociology: Scientific study of social behavior in human groups What is Sociology? Focus on: How relationships influence peoples attitudes and behavior How societies develop and change
What is Sociology? Social Forces forces external to us Sociology the study of how we live together in the social environment a collective view beyond the individual view 3
What is Sociology? cont Peter Berger (1963) Seeing the general in the particular An attempt to understand (Berger 1963:4) 4
What is Sociology? cont Sociology is the systematic study of human society and social interaction using both theoretical perspectives and research methods in the examination of social life (Kendall 2005:4). 5
What is Sociology? cont the first wisdom of sociology is this things are not what they seem…Social reality turns out to have many layers of meaning. The discovery of each new layer changes the perception of the whole. Berger (1963) 6
the ability to view ones society as an outsider would, without ones limited experiences and cultural biases An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, and… The Sociological Imagination C. Wright Mills describes sociological imagination as
The Sociological Imagination View the world and its people in a new way See through a broader lens Looks beyond a limited understanding of human behavior
Sociology and Science Science: body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation Natural Science: study of physical features of nature and the ways they interact and change Social Science: study of social features of humans and the ways they interact and change
Sociology and Science Study the influence that society has on peoples attitudes and behavior Seek to understand ways in which people interact and shape society Examine social relationships with others scientifically
Women tend to be chatty Military marriages more likely to end in separation or divorce Sociology and Common Sense Sociologists do not accept something as fact because everyone knows it –Each piece of information must be tested, recorded, and analyzed
What Is Sociological Theory? Theory Set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior Effective theories have explanatory and predictive power Theories are never a final statement about human behavior
Philosophers/religious authorities of ancient and medieval societies made observations of human behavior The Development of Sociology European theorists in the 19 th century made pioneering contributions to the development of the science of human behavior
The Origins of Sociology Setting the stage Intellectual Revolution Political Revolutions Imperialism Scientific Method 14
The Origins of Sociology cont Transformation of Society Industrial Revolution movement from a rural society to an urban, industrialized society new ways of living new social problems resulting from mass migration to cities from rural areas poverty, crime, exploitation of workers 15
The Origins of Sociology cont Summary Sociology was a response to the social chaos in Europe resulting from the French and Industrial Revolutions 16
Early European Social Thinkers Goals of early social thinkers order and stability in society 17
Early European Social Thinkers cont what caused societies to change; what social forces were at work 18
August Comte (19th Century ). French Sociologist Auguste Comte coined the term sociology Systematic investigation of behavior needed to improve society became interested in the twin problems of social order and social change positivism
Herbert Spencer English sociologist ( ) sometimes called the second founder of sociology Studied evolutionary change in society social realism used an organic analogy that compared society to a living organism made up of interdependent parts. Spencer was convinced that societies evolve from lower (barbarian) to higher (civilized) forms
Herbert Spencer ( ) society like a living organism 21 =
Social Darwinism As generations pass, he said, the most capable and intelligent (the fittest) members of the society survive believed that if left alone, social problems will work themselves out through the process of natural selection called survival of the fittest this implies that the fittest (rich and powerful) deserve to enjoy their wealth or success because they have been selected by nature to be what they are.
Karl Marx German Sociologist ( ) Marx believed that the key to human history is class conflict Divided in two social classes 1. bourgeoisie 2. proletariat The bourgeoisie rely on the exploitation of the proletariat.
Karl Marx German Sociologist ( ) Focused on sources of change, power, and conflict in industrial and capitalist societies (Hurst 2000:11). Stability and change found in the nature of class relationships Economic Determinism Dialectic Change
Karl Marx German Sociologist ( ) Exploitation Alienation Capitalism is not merely the production of commodities; it is essentially the production of surplus value Karl Marx. Polish Proverb Under capitalism man exploits man; under socialism the reverse is true.
Karl Marx Marx believed that an entire system of economic, social, and political relationships had been established to maintain the power and dominance of the owners over the workers Marx argued that the working class needed to overthrow the existing class system
Classical period ( ) Emile Durkheim French Sociologist ( ) Max Weber German Sociologist ( ) George Simmel German Sociologist ( ) Chicago school
Emile Durkheim French Sociologist ( ) Durkheims major goals was to study how individual behavior is shaped by social forces. Was interested in the rates of suicide and how they varied form country to country Durkheim insisted that behavior cannot be fully understood in individualistic terms, instead it must be understood within a larger social context.
Emile Durkheim Durkheim found that Protestants, males, and the unmarried killed themselves at a higher rate than did Catholics, Jews, females, and the married. The force that he found to have a great impact on suicide was social integration Anomie: Refers to a loss of direction that is felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.
Emile Durkheim It occurs when people have lost their sense of purpose or direction, often during a time of profound social change Altruistic: Somebody that feels a deep sense of moral obligation and is willing to sacrifice for the group's well being
Emile Durkheim Key concept of Durkheim social integration the degree to which people are tied to their group Life long goal of Durkheim make sociology an academic discipline social facts Social Reality: society greater than the sum of its parts
Max Weber German Sociologist ( ) One of Webers most important contributions to sociology was his study of the rise of capitalism Weber theorized that the Roman Catholic belief system encouraged Catholics to cling to this traditional way of life, while the Protestant belief system, especially Calvinism, encouraged people to embrace change
Max Weber Weber also stressed that one cannot understand human behavior simply by looking at statistics Weber said "To fully comprehend behavior, we must learn the subjective meanings people attach to their actions- how they themselves view and explain their behavior In other words people should use Verstehen the German word for "understanding"
Max Weber influenced by Marx class relationships not solely based on economics religion a key factor The Protestant Ethic concern with rationalization in society defined social action peoples behaviors have meaning assigned by those people Influenced American sociology 34
George Simmel ( ) Influenced American sociology Small Scale Analysis individual action and interaction group dynamics 35
W.E.B. Du Bois First Black person to receive doctorate from Harvard University Contributed with studies of urban life, among both Whites and Blacks Believed in granting of full political rights to Blacks. Challenged the status quo Helped to found the NAACP
Sociological Perspectives The different sociological perspective tend to focus on one of two different levels. 1. Theories of society (macro theories) 2. social psychological theories (micro theories)