Презентация на тему: " Topical problems of realization of the Convention on the protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution in Crimea Mariana Lukianova, Antonina Kovalchuk." — Транскрипт:
Topical problems of realization of the Convention on the protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution in Crimea Mariana Lukianova, Antonina Kovalchuk Feodosia
In spite of industry decline in Ukraine and decrease of volumes of industrial contaminators receipts, Black and Azov Seas are still the sea regions, with biggest anthropogenic influence in Europe. According to the data of the Black Sea Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis, 38.3 tons of oil productions came annually to the sea aquatoria from the Europe area. It is 66.7 % from total pollution of the sea by all Black sea coastal countries. As the coastal waters pollutes intensively first of all, so at the present time the question of coastal aquatories protection and sea environment control stays very sharply.
Ecological, economic and legal conflicts, which exists now in the process of developing of coastal area of BlackSea coast. Coastal zone is the zone of biggest contradictions and most sharp conflict situations, because of intensive economic developing and recreational loading. Particular features of the present time are the next factors, typical for Black Sea coast: Chaotic nature of seacoast – aquatic complexes as a result of human activities; Lack of strategy of coastal zones advisable use, in consideration of ecological, economic and social factors; Contradictions and different readings of thesis of main legislative acts, as to legal questions of developing and operation in coastal zone; Lack of unified monitoring and control system over the industrial activities in the coastal regions; Lack of stimulus to change environment protection policy, in the governmental structures, local authorities and businessmen; Corruption in government and in the control organs of all levels; Lack of economic and psychological prerequisites to activate the main mass of population.
Legistlative Laws, Institutions and Problems in Ukraine There are 2 main legislative Laws (the Water Code, the Land Code) that regulate legal issues in water and land management in Ukraine and provide legal provisions for coastal area management as well. It is provisioned in these Laws that the water protective zones have to be established along all water bodies in Ukraine. Within the water protective zones along the sea coast a 2 km coastal protective stripes are established in order to protect the nature of the sea. Its legal regime is more stringent than that of the remaining part of the water protected zones. The marine part of special nature protection or special management is not established at the legislative level in Ukraine. However the Ministry for the Protection of the Environment of Ukraine has developed a draft Law On coastal stripe of the sea in 2008, according to which protective seaward and inland zones should be established. According to Ukrainian legislation this draft Law is now undergoing the procedure of endorsement with other Ministries and should be submitted to the Cabinet of the Ministries of Ukraine at the end of this year.
The main institution that is carrying out environment protection policy in Ukraine is the Ministry of the Environmental Protection of Ukraine. State Inspection of Azov Sea, Azov-Black Sea Ecological Inspection and State inspection of the Protection of the environment of North-Western region of the Black sea control environmental activities of 100 m inland territory of Ukraine and internal sea waters, territorial sea, exceptional sea economic zone and continental shelf. To protect and improve the ecological condition in the Black and Azov Seas the State Program of Protection and Rehabilitation of the Azov and Black Sea has been developed and approved by the Ukrainian Parliament in The Program has been running for 10 years and should be completed at the end of The Program is coordinated by the Ministry of the Environmental Protection of Ukraine and coordination of measures between different stakeholders is carried out by the Inter-Departmental Commission that holds its meetings once a year.
Region of Black and Azov Seas in Ukraine The region has different economical activities: tourism, agriculture, fishing, metallurgy and energy production. Ukraine is very proud that it has the only sea reserve in the Black Sea.. In 2008, by Presidential Decree 1064 the State botanical sea reserve Filophora Field Zernov was designated. The total area of this reserve is 4025 km2. It is protected by the Ukrainian Scientific Center of Sea Ecology under the Ministry for the Environmental Protection of Ukraine. The role of Environmental NGO in the protection and rehabilitation of the state of Black and Azov Seas: NGO MAMA-86 has 3 regional organizations in the Black Sea area: MAMA- 86-Feodosiya, MAMA-86-Sevastopol and MAMA-86-Mykolaiv. These organizations are quite active in the region, now carrying out projects aiming at the improving sanitary conditions of the citizens, drinking water quality. Every year MAMA-86-Feodosiya celebrates Black Sea Day. NGO MAMA-86 and its regional organizations have a lot of experience and have been involved in a lot of projects organizing round tables, conferences and workshops for different stakeholders on different topics about Black Sea.
Problems of ecological safety, connected with draining systems in the coastal zones. Industrial enterprises of Feodosia changed irreversibly Feodosia bay ecosystem (annually shed 70 tons of phosphorus and 165 tons of nitrogen). Sewage water are most dangerous and have a big volume now. All coastal recreational area (114 km along Feodosia bay) haven't sewage system. Central sewage system was built with terrible wrongs, without any thinking about territory relief. Town sewage system was built on the 90-meter top of the hill over the Feodosia town, powerful pumps are pumping sewage to the settle-constructions on the 90-meter high, it takes a lot of electricity and create a dangerous ecological situation. Also there are 15 pump station in the recreation zones of the town. Sewage of water-clearing station flows to the sea by 400-meter collector, when it have to be meters, ten times more. So bay circulation brings sewage back to the beaches, every year people, especially children, have infections, which are taken from the sea.
The risk of sea environment pollution in the Black Sea must be minimized, during the shed of municipal economy sewage( article 6 of Protocol on Pollution Control from Land-Based Sources and Activities) Central sewage system was built with terrible wrongs, without any thinking about territory relief. Town sewage system was built on the 90-meter top of the hill over the Feodosia town, powerful pumps are pumping sewage to the settle-constructions on the 90-meter high, it takes a lot of electricity and create a dangerous ecological situation. Also there are 15 pump station in the recreation zones of the town. Sewage of water-clearing station flows to the sea by 400-meter collector, when it have to be meters, ten times more. So bay circulation brings sewage back to the beaches, every year people, especially children, have infections, which are taken from the sea.
Drainage system breaks and sanitary stations have to close the beaches Bad condition of the drainage systems is the reason of constant accidents. In summer 2008 sewage flowed to the bay during 3 days, because of the broken sewage pipe over the Baybuga River. Addition to the accident is the existence of numerous pipes from private houses, they work all the time, near the Feodosia beaches.
Ecological, economic and legislative conflicts, which exists now in the process of Feodosia bay coastal area developing, connected with contradictions and different readings of thesis of the main legislative acts, as to legal questions of developing and operation of coastal zone. Illegal building process on the beaches area, concrete constructions, hotels without sewage systems, and it all near water line, 5-10 meters from it. Barriers along this ex -Golden Beach protect the sea from usual people. It is also illegal. All this ugliness makes from the resolution of town committee deputies. Typical thing for all Crimea coast is connected with of ignoring of ecological legislation. Control organs almost do not protests against such ignoring, and let to build big private hotels (22 grounds) right on the sends of Feodosia bay. It is illegal also.
Protocols and declarations about protection of the Black Sea do not includes possible consequences from some dangerous underwater heritage. Several times Black Sea brought the World Second War mines to the coast. According to the data of the underwater heritage of Archeological Ukrainian Institution, there are 468 sunken objects in the Black and Azov Seas. Most dangerous object now is the sunken military ship Jan Jores, full of mines and bombs. From the January 1942 it lays on the 14-meter depth in the Feodosia bay, only in 800 meters from coast. With tanks full of fuel (60 tons), it contains military technique, 120 tons of shells 60 tons of mines, patrons, air bombs with weight 50 kg. Unbelievable, but guests of the town even dive to this ship with a tourist curiosity. Circulation of currents in Feodosia bay can rise up this dangerous heritage of war, and to bring it on the coast, or make a great explosion.
In the article 9 of Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea against Pollution is planned collaboration in fight against pollution in extraordinary situation". In the appropriate Protocol we have to foresee activities on liquidation of such disasters consequences. On the level of local authorities it is impossible to decide such a problem.. Storm in the Black Sea ( 11 November 2007) showed, that liquidation of the consequences of accident in Kerchensky strait near Tuzla, needed activities, which are still not ended: utilization of 6.7 thousands tons of fuel oil and changing it to the blend for building industry, to build a roads. But after one year since the accident, the gathered fuel oil still not utilized.
Famous history of water-supplying in Feodosia (Kaffa) In Genueses period, when Feodosia named Kaffa, there was wonderful system of town water-supplying, from Tepe-Oba mountain slopes water was flowing down through the clay pipes, and clever idea was in next: there was reservoir in town with holes three levels, according to the quantity of year water. Also Kaffa has first in Europe and world atmospheric moisture condenser, named Zibold Condenser. We have to keep traditions of ancient water-supplying systems, such exposition is the proud of Feodosia city regional museum, headed by director Evseev A. A. On the photo – museum scientific expert Skorobogataya Helena, with exposition to 100-years anniversary of Zibold Condenser.
Proposals about solution of conflicts in the process of development of coastal zone of Crimea seacoast To develop strategy of advisable use of coastal zones, taking into account ecological, economic and social factors; Regime of coastal recreation zones use have to be connected with jurisdiction of the central governmental structures; to take out sanitary coastal zones from the jurisdiction of local authorities, providing free access of citizens to this recreation resources; to provide regular informing of Sides-participants of Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution; To forbid a rent of coastal zones by private sector; To forbid any building in the coastal 100-meter zone; To classify existing buildings in 100-meter coastal zone as illegal, to annul the resolution of local authorities as illegal; To create unified system of monitoring and control over economic activity in the coastal regions. Realization of such proposals will activate population to abide by ecological and civil rights, it will promote prestige of government.
КОНТАКТЫ: Feodosia town public ecological organization Mama-86-Feodosia Our web-site: