The Constitution of Canada divided the responsibilities of the Government into federal and provincial jurisdictions. It also provided for the possibility of the provincial governments to delegate some of its responsibilities to one or more municipal governments. Federal Government Provincial and Territorial Government Municipal Government
The Federal Government is seated in Ottawa and is headed by the Governor General of Canada on the advice of the Prime Minister. Its responsibilities include: defence, criminal law, employment insurance, postal service, census, copyrights, trade regulation, external relations, money and banking, transportation, citizenship, and Indian affairs.
The Provincial and Territorial Governments currently number ten and three, respectively. Each has its own capital city and is headed by a Lieutenant Governor (provinces) or a Commissioner (territories) on the advice of a Premier. A province exists in its own right, a creation of the Constitution Acts, A territory, however, is created through federal law. As a result, Crown lands in the territories are retained by the federal government in the Crown in right of Canada. In general, provincial and territorial responsibilities include: property and civil rights, administration of justice, natural resources and the environment, education, health, and welfare.
Municipal Governments are essential "creatures" of the provincial or territorial governments. The latter can create, modify, or eliminate a municipal government at will and controls exactly which powers a municipal government is entitled to execute. There are hundreds of municipalities in each province and territory and are labelled in many different forms. Their responsibilities vary from location to location but generally include: water sewage, waste collection, public transit, land use planning, libraries, emergency services, animal control, and economic developmen