Стратегии дистанцирования Тактика смещения временного плана Тактика использования модальных глаголов Техника смещения в прошлое или будущее Техника использования продолженного времени Техника использования модальных глаголов с условным наклонением Техника использования модальных глаголов в устойчивых конструкциях
Смещение в прошлое или будущее FunctionsIndirectDirect order formulaeI'll have to ask you to sign it./Youll need to sign it. (You must) Sign it. order/instructionWill you open the books and start reading? Open the books and start reading. suggestion/offerShall we go out for a meal somewhere downtown? Let's go out for a meal... offering/acceptin g - That will be $10. - That'// be OK.- It is $10. - That's OK. polite enquiryHow many guests did you intend to invite over? How many...do you intend to... request formulaeI thought you could /would like to.I think you could... suggestionI thought it might be nice to visit an old friend I think it's nice to visit a friend request/offer I wondered if you were free at ten o'clock? I wonder if you were free at ten?
Использование продолженного времени FunctionsIndirectDirect polite enquiryWhat meetings are you planning to arrange? Let us know your plans. stating inventions I'm sorry, I must be going, or I'll be late for dinner. Sorry, I must go, or I'll be late. request formulae I 'm hoping you can give me a hand in packing. I hope you can give me... parting formulae I'm looking forward to hearing from you soon. I look forward to hearing... suggestionI was thinking what about having a picnic? I thought what about... polite enquiryWill you be staying with us at Christmas? Are you staying with us...? request formulae I was wondering if you had a bag to spare? I wondered if you had...
Использование модальных глаголов в устойчивых конструкциях FunctionsIndirectDirect request formulaeCould/would you lend me your printer? Will you lend me your printer? invitationWould you care to follow me upstairs? Do you care to follow me upstairs? opinionMight it be alright to do it this way? Is it alright to do it this way? inquiryYou wouldnt go to Hull by any chance? You're not going to Hull by any chance? offer/suggestionSuppose we might give them a lift?Let's give them a lift. criticism/adviceYou could/might warn them in advance. You should/must warn them in advance. opinion/offerId think we might spend a night here. I think we'll spend a night here. opinion/criticismI'd say this is not the best way to treat cats. I say, this is not the best way to treat cats. desire/suggestionI'd like/prefer to make a briefreview of... I want (you) to make a brief review of...
Использование модальных глаголов в конструкциях условного наклонения FunctionsIndirectDirect enquiry/offer I wonder if you might be interested in...? I wonder if you are interested in...? advice formulae If I were you I'd join up with this firm. You should join up with this firm. suggestion/advice It would be better if he went there alone. Let him/He should go there alone. order/instruction If you would stand over there? Will you stand over there? order/refusing I'd rather you didn't refer to those data. Don't refer to those data. permission I wish you wouldn't disclose those facts You mustn't /shouldn't do that...
Стратегии намёка Тактика регуляции значимости Тактика отрицания как намёка Техника минимизации значимости Техника снижения определенности Техника использования прямого отрицания Техника скрытого и двойного отрицания
Минимизация FunctionsUnderstatementStatement criticisingThe room is a little / a bit overcrowded. The room is overcrowded. requestCould I make a very brief announcement? Can I make an announcement? excuseJust a minute. I'll be back in a moment. Wait a little. I'll be back soon. apologyIt was just a slip of the tongue. It was a slip of the tongue. attitudeThe news somewhat shocked me. The news shocked me.
Снижение определенности FunctionsUnderstatementStatement apologyI've got a kind of an apology to make. I want to apologise. giving explanations There's a sort of misunderstanding. There is a misunderstanding. It was more or less out of place. It was out of place. Expressing (negative) opinions We tend to overlook the importance of tests. We often overlook it. I am inclined to feel that it is important. I feel that it is important. I sort of think it could be better if you quit. It could be better if you...
Прямое отрицание FunctionsUnderstatementStatement attitudeI'm not pleased with his manners. (= I'm definitely disgusted) greetingHow are you? Not so well, thank you. I'm not well (= I am ill) dislikeI'm not particularly keen on TV. I'm not keen on TV (= I hate TV) disagreeingIt is not quite that easy; you see... It is not easy (= It is very difficult) disagreeingI don't think I could quite agree with I think I can't fully agree (= I disagree) offerI don't suppose you'll accept my offer. I suppose you'll not accept it (I hope you will) statementHe didn't tell me anything about it. He told me nothing about it.
Скрытое и двойное отрицание FunctionsUnderstatementStatement statementHe's got little idea how engines work. He's got no idea how engines work. statementI hardly ever speak in public. I never speak in public. criticisingHe lacks courage to give it up. He doesn't have courage to give it up. criticisingHis plan is not devoid of drawbacks. His plan is full of drawbacks. statementIt is not impossible.It is possible. opinionHe's not without pretensions. He has (many) pretensions.
Стратегия уклонения Тактика уклонения от ответственности Тактика смягчения посредством вопросов Техника представления суждения как личного мнения Техника смягчения прямых побудительных высказываний Техника представления суждения как личного мнения Техника смягчения вопросительных высказываний
Представление суждения как личного мнения FunctionsDirectIndirect opinionIn my opinion it would be better to postpone the meeting. It is… (without opening phrases) attitudeAs far as I know to find the right decision is not that simple. rememberingIf Г m not mistaken, the matter was highlighted in Issues #2 explainingI'd like to mention that it has been discussed time and again. opinion/ reckon/guess she's the last person to ask for compassion. opinionPersonally, I (don't) feel you're making the best choice.
Представление суждения как обобщения FunctionsDirectIndirect adviceIt is well known that language learning takes time. I know it well. prohibitionThis car is parked on a double yellow line. You parked illegally. orderEnglish is spoken here.Don't speak Russian. attitudeThey say it's not a proper way to treat animals. It's not a proper way to treat animals. complaintIt appears that our lunch is likely to be delayed. Our lunch is delayed. criticismYou happen to be mistaken, he seems to have won. You are mistaken, he has won. prohibitionYou are not supposed to walk your dog here. You shouldn't walk your dog here. hesitationOne can't know for sure, it depends on many things. I don't know for sure.
Смягчение прямых побудительных высказываний FunctionsQuestion (indirect)Statement (direct) adviceWhy don't you speak to him directly? You should speak to him directly. invitationWhy don't you come up and have lunch with us? Come up and have lunch with us. pressing offer Why couldn 't we prolong our visit?Let us prolong our visit. suggestionWon't it be better (for us) to leave at once? We'd better leave at once. opinionWould it be less expensive to go by car? It'd be less expensive to go by car. orderWould you like to go on reading?Go on reading. invitationWould you care to stay with us tonight? Stay with us tonight.
Смягчение побуждений, представленных в форме вопроса FunctionsQuestion (indirect)Statement (direct) request/offerI don't suppose you'll find time for it now? Will you find time for it now? enquiryI suppose you're very busy now? Are you (very) busy now? request/askingYou haven't seen my cat here, have you? Have you seen my cat here? for informationYou don't know where Bells is, do you? Do you know where Bells is? enquiry/askingYou are the new teacher, aren 't you? Are you the new teacher? for agreementYou do take milk in coffee, don't you? Do you take milk in coffee? orderCarry this bag for me, will you? Will you carry this bag for me?
Стратегии коммуникативной поддержки собеседника Тактика усиления значимости Тактика подчеркнутого преувеличения Техника развернутой оценки и повтора Техника интенсификации Техника гиперболизации значимости Техника двойного преувеличения
Интенсификация Formulae ofOverstatementStatement gratitudeThank you (ever) so much /very much indeed! Youre too kind! Thank you. gratitudeI'm so much obliged to you! How can I ever thank you! Thank you. gratitudeI'm so grateful!/ I can't tell you how grateful I am! Thank you. sympathyI'm so sorry! / I can't tell you how sorry I am! I am sorry. apologyI'm extremely / awfully / (ever) so sorry (but…) Sorry (but..) refusalI'm very much afraid, I can't join you. Sorry (but..)
Развёрнутая оценка и повтор FunctionOverstatementStatement complimentYou were always so good at cooking but this tea party was truly a masterpiece! Those cakes were simply unforgettable. I really loved them. I must have a copy of your wonderful recipe. Youre really a good cook. Thank you. interruptionI suppose youre very busy now but its too urgent to wait. I do hope it wont take too much of your precious time. Sorry (to interrupt).
Гиперболизация значимости FunctionOverstatementStatement greeting formulae How are you? – Im fine, thank you. Im well, thank you. request formulae I wonder if it is at all possible for me to…? Is it possible…? acceptingWould you like a cup of coffee? Yes, Im dying for it Yes, please. attitudeIm delighted to know that youre flourishing. Im glad youre well. attitudeIll go nuts if you hum that tune one more time! Ill be very upset… enquiryHow silly of me to (ask you/about/such things) Could you tell me…
Двойное преувеличение FunctionOverstatementStatement apologizingI really hate to bother you at this early hour but... Excuse me… praisingI just love our new car. I really enjoyed your present. I like your present. complimentingYou're so brilliant at organizing things! You're good at/kind. attitudeI simply cannot live without my car/I 'd just die without him! I need/ miss attitudeI was absolutely mortified when they found my diary I was very ashamed...
Стратегии поддержания контакта Тактика развертывания односложных ответных реплик Тактика заполнения пауз Техника усиления согласия Техника вопросов как знаков внимания Техника смягчения отказа Техника использования заполнителей пауз
Выражение согласия и отказа FunctionsIndirectDirect agreeingIt's all very amusing, isn't it? Yes, very. / It certainly is. Yes. acceptingWill you join us at the party? - Yes, most willingly. (Thank you.) Yes. opinionDo you think it's going to rain? - (No,) I don't believe so./ I h No. refusingAre you going to the meeting? (No,) I'm afraid, not. I'm likely t No. apologizingSo you're going to be late again? Yes, I'm afraid so = I'm sorry, but. Yes. disagreeingDo you agree with our proposal? Yes, up to a point, but (you see)... No.
Вопросы как знаки внимания Functio ns Polite Reactions s attention"It was great." - "Oh, yes?" - "I really enjoyed the play i interest"There was an excellent performance last night." - "Oh, was there?" l emphatic"It was a lovely party." "Yes, wasn't it?' e pitySo you're getting a divorce, are you?n concernOh, it was his funeral yesterday, was it?c surprise"...I opened the fridge and saw...a mouse!" "A mouse?! In the fridge?" e
Использование заполнителей пауз FunctionsPolite Reactions praising/ attention / pity Oh, how very exciting!/(How) interesting!/How very sad! s interest/ surprise/ sympathy What a beautiful sight/What a surprise!/What a pity! i delight/ concern/ disbelief (That's) great!/(That's) awful!/(That's) impossible! l surprise/ concern/ disbelief You can't be serious!/It cant be/You must be very upset/ joking! e sympathy / surpriseOh dear/ту God! Oh no!/Gosh!/Wow! Phew!/Oh, come on! No! n hesitation/attentionum/ er...; ayyy/ theeee/ toooo//yes/uh-huh /mh-hmm c hesitation/attentionWell, now, that is to say/ I see what you mean. Quite. Right. OK e gaining time/explaining Well, you see...Oh, let me think for a moment. The point is..
Литература Кузьменкова Ю.Б. Стратегии речевого поведения в англоязычной среде. – М.: Педагогический университет «Первое сентября», 2006 г.