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Sir Isaac Newton Done by Artjom Marinin, a pupil of the 7 th «A» a pupil of the 7 th «A» School 1 Zapadnaya Dvina
Sir Isaac Newton (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727 was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. He is considered to be one of the most influential people in history. His Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, is one of the most important scientific books ever written. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound.
Early Life Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 at Woolsthorpe Manor in, Woolsthorpe-by- Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. Newton was born three months after the death of his father, a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough. Newton never married, being highly engrossed in his studies and work. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The Kings School, Grantham. He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, where his mother attempted to make a farmer of him. He hated farming. Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education.
In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge as a sizar. At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle, but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers, such as Descartes, and of astronomers such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler. In 1665, he discovered the binomal theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory. In 1667, he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity.
Middle years Mathematics Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied". His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen, for example, in a manuscript of October 1666, now published among Newton's mathematical papers. A related subject was infinite series. Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton, a fellow of our College, and very young... but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things".
Optics During this period he investigated the refraction of light, demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours, and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light. He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. Thus, he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. This is known as Newtons theory of colour. From this work, he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours. As a proof of the concept, he constructed a telescope using a mirror. In late 1668 he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. In 1671, the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope.
In 1704, Newton published Optics, in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles, that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another,...and may not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?" Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator, using a glass globe (Optics, 8th Query).
Mechanics and gravitation In 1679, Newton returned to his work on mechanics, i.e., gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets, with reference to Keplers law of planetary motion. Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum, a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia. The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley. In this work, Newton stated three universal laws of motion. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity and defined the law of universal gravitation.
Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth, but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so, that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit, whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition.
Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. The King's School, Grantham, claims that the tree was purchased by the school, uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later. The staff of the National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this, and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. A descendant of the original tree can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale can supply grafts from their tree, which appears identical to Flower of Kent, a coarse-fleshed cooking variety.
Laws of motion. The famous three laws of motion: Newton's First Law states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force,, on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum,, with time. If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0), the first term vanishes, and by substitution using the definition ofacceleration, the equation can be written in the iconic form Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. A common example is of two ice-skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions.
Later Life In the 1690s, Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. Later works –The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733)– were published after his death. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy. Newton was also a member of the Parliament from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701, but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Academie des Sciences In April 1705, Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College, Cambridge. Newton was the first scientist ever to be knighted. Towards the end of his life, Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park, near Winchester with his niece and her husband, until his death in Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 and was buried inWestminster Abbey.
After death English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. The Latin inscription on the base translates as: Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England. A statue of Isaac Newton, standing over an apple, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.
The Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences is an international research institute running a series of visitor programmes across the spectrum of the mathematical sciences. Established in 1992, the 350th anniversary of Newton's birth, the Institute itself has no direct historical links with Newton, but was named after him because of his great achievements in the fields of mathematics, optics, physics and astronomy. The Newton Institute continues in this tradition of crossing the boundaries between scientific disciplines.