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Презентация была опубликована 4 года назад пользователемГалина Пекарская

1 1 Brane world cosmology Lecture from the course Introduction to Cosmoparticle Physics

2 2 1. Different approaches of investigation Fundamentally theoretic approach. superstring U supergravity M-theory (?) D=10 D 11 Phenomenological approach. D=4+d Studying possible manifestations of extra dimensions and possibilities of solutions of basic problems facing the M-theory ( hierarchy of electroweak and Planck scales: 200GeV GeV, and others ) by the example of simple ( maybe inconsistent with fundamental theory ) models.

3 3 2. Progress of phenomenological approach 1) Kaluza-Klein type models. Solution of Klein-Gordon equation in 5 dimensions (4 ordinary (x, = 0,…3) + 1 cylindrical (z)) for massless field gives Whence we have From point of view 4d space-time a particle has got mass states – KK-states Modern experiment restricts extra dimension manifestation so as 1/R > a few 100 GeV => R < cm.

4 4 2. Progress of phenomenological approach 2) Capture of the fields by 4d manifold (brane) Let us take a scalar field ( ) in 5 (infinite) dimensions with potential as shown. It leads to domain wall dividing 5d space-time on two parts with respect to one (z) of the dimensions. Let a fermion ( ) has a Yukava coupling with given scalar field (h ). Then fermion gets mass states as shown on the picture, where zero-state turns to be localized (captured) near z=0 (domain wall), damping as exp(-hv|z|). Capture of gauge fields is more problematic. (products leave 4d space-time)

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5 2. Progress of phenomenological approach 3) ADD type models (or low energetic gravity). Ordinary matter is considered to be captured on 4d brane (M 4 ) of <

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6 2. Progress of phenomenological approach 3) ADD type models (or low energetic gravity). At E~M Pl there should be copious production of KK-gravitons with m n =n/R

7 7 2. Progress of phenomenological approach 3) ADD type models (or low energetic gravity). Another (negative and positive) consequences of ADD model: - Problem of overproduction of KK-gravitons in the early Universe. At T>>1/R KK-gravitons are produced with the rate Agreement with BBN and (modern) requires Low T R (~MeV GeV), as obtained for M Pl ~1 TeV, forces to muse anew upon the questions of baryosynthesis, inflation, dark matter origin in the early Universe. M Pl >>1 TeV (>10 30 TeV) is preferable. Conclusion is not changed in principle, if KK-gravitons are decayed before BBN. - Constraint from SN1987: agreement with an observed neutrino signal requires Generally it agrees with constrains from cosmology.

8 8 2. Progress of phenomenological approach 3) ADD type models (or low energetic gravity). Another (negative and positive) consequences of ADD model: + Solution of small masses of known neutrinos due to sterile neutrino with KK-states and mixed with ordinary ones. It can be provided, as well as for a bulk Plank mass, by large extra dimensions. * All possible physics of Grand Unification should take place at E M Pl. In this case gauge constants should run following another law: a power-like law can be suggested (logarithmic law changes onto power-like starting from some until M Pl ). - As a consequence of low energetic GUT physics, a problem of fast proton decay appears.

9 9 2. Progress of phenomenological approach 3) RS type models (or low energetic gravity). There are attempts to realize idea of solving hierarchy problem due to extra dimensions taking properly into account effect of gravity in a bulk space. RS – Randall, Sundrum In such configuration 4d gravity constant on the brane at z=z c (with negative tension, RS-1) turns out to be reduced exponentially as compared to a bulk (5d) gravity constant. k – curvature of the bulk space, can be ~M Pl. Note, 5d gravity constant has dimension here M Pl -3. Lightest KK-gravitons has m~k (from point of view our brane) and interaction strength. There are different variations of such kind model: model with our world on the z=0 brane (RS-2: in this case there is no exponential suppression of our 4d gravity constant with respect to 5d one, but electroweak symmetry breaking can be connected with the second brane (z=z c ) and in this manner relative exponential suppression can be reached), model with 3 branes, with intersecting branes.

10 10 3. Progress of fundamental theoretic approach

11 11 4. Birth of brane world A birth of brane(s) filled with matter and an empty interior bulk is a problem.

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Centrifugal force (rotating reference frame). Centrifugal force (from Latin centrum "center" and fugere "to flee") can generally be any force directed.

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