Задачи работы: 1.Рассказать о традиционных британских праздниках 2. Рассказать о традиционных британских блюдах
In Britain there are special foods connected with certain festivals. The main ones are shown below. Shrove Tuesday In England, (and the rest of the UK) the Tuesday before Lent is known as Pancake Day (Shrove Tuesday). On that day it is traditional to eat pancakes, toss pancakes and take part in pancake races. The origins of eating pancakes arose from Christians who observe Lent and wanted to use up all the rich foods in their cupboards before Lent. During Lent eggs, sugar and butter were not allowed so these ingreadients were used to make pancakes. Today everyone celebrates Pancake Day regardless of religion. An English pancake is a thin, flat cake, made of butter and fried in a frying pan. A traditional English pancake is very thin and is served immediately from the frying pan.
Good Friday Since the early nineteenth century, before the introduction of bank holidays, Good Friday and Christmas Day were the only two days of leisure which were almost universally granted to working people. Good Friday today is still a public holiday in much of the UK. This means that many businesses are closed. Some Christians fast (go without food) on Good Friday. This helps them remember the sacrifice Jesus made for them on the day of crucifixion. It is traditional to eat warm 'hot cross buns' on Good Friday. Hot Cross Buns with their combination of spicy, sweet and fruity flavours have long been an Easter tradition. The pastry cross on top of the buns symbolizes and reminds Christians of the cross that Jesus was killed on.
Easter Day After the lean months of winter and the fast weeks of Lent, food at Easter was always a special treat. Easter day, like Christmas day, is also associated with special food. Boiled eggs are traditionally served at breakfast, then Easter cards and gifts may be exchanged. Roast lamb. Lamb is considered to be the traditional meat for Easter due to its religious connections. Many different religions throughout the ages have ritually sacrificed lambs in honour of their respective gods. The traditional Easter pudding is custard tarts sprinkled with currants and flat Easter biscuits. Simnel cake is baked for tea.
Mothering Sunday Mothering Sunday in the UK is the equivalent of Mothers` Day in other countries. Mothering Sunday is a time when children pay respect to their Mothers. Children often give their Mothers a gift and a card. Mothering Sunday (Mother's Day) is always the fourth Sunday of Lent. The most favoured cake was - as it still is in some families - was the 'simnel cake'. The Simnel cake is a fruit cake. A flat layer of marzipan (sugar almond paste) is placed on top of and decorated with 11 marzipan balls representing the 12 apostles minus Judas, who betrayed Christ. It was not eaten on Mothering Sunday because of the rules of Lent, instead it was saved until Easter. A Simnel is still made in many parts of England today, although it is now more commonly made for and eaten on Easter Day.
May Day Traditional English May Day rites and celebrations include Morris dancing, crowning a May Queen and celebrations involving a maypole. May Day has been a traditional day of festivities throughout the centuries. May Day is most associated with towns and villages celebrating springtime fertility (of the soil, livestock, and people) and revelry with village fetes and community gatherings. Seeding has been completed by this date and it was convenient to give farm labourers a day off. Perhaps the most significant of the traditions is the maypole, around which traditional dancers circle with ribbons. It is traditional to eat Honour Cakes – small round puff cheesecakes sometimes flavoured with almonds and rose water.
Harvest Festival Harvest Festival used to be celebrated at the beginning of the Harvest season on 1 August and was called Lammas, meaning 'loaf Mass'. Farmers made loaves of bread from the new wheat crop and gave them to their local church. They were then used as the Communion bread during a special mass thanking God for the harvest. The custom ended when Henry VIII broke away from the Catholic Church, and nowadays we have harvest festivals at the end of the season. At the start of the harvest, communities would appoint a strong and respected man of the village as their 'Lord of the Harvest'. He would be responsible for negotiating the harvest wages and organising the fieldworkers. The end of the harvest was celebrated with a big meal called a Harvest Supper. The 'Lord of the Harvest' sat at the head of the table. A goose stuffed with apples was eaten along with a variety of vegetables.
Halloween On October 31st, we celebrate Halloween,thought to be the one night of the year when ghosts, witches, and fairies are especially active. Halloween comes from All Hallow Even, the eve (night before) All Hallows day. Therefore, Halloween is the eve of All Saints Day. The Celts believed that evil spirits came with the long hours of winter darkness. They believed that on that night the barriers between our world and the spirit world were at their weakest and therefore spirits were most likely to be seen on earth. Delicious toffee apples coated in toffee are great for Halloween.
All Souls Day According to tradition, a pilgrim returning from the Holy Land took refuge on a rocky island during a storm. There he met a hermit, who told him that among the cliffs was an opening to the infernal regions through which flames ascended, and where the groans of the tormented were distinctly audible. The pilgrim told Odilo, Abbot of Cluny, who appointed the following day (2 November 998) to be set apart for 'all the dead who have existed from the beginning of the world to the end of time'. The day purposely follows All Saints' Day in order to shift the focus from those in heaven to those in purgatory. Before the Reformation, it was customary for poor Christians to offer prayers for the dead, in return for money or food (soul cakes), from their wealthier neighbours. A Soul Cake is like a hot cross bun but without the currants or the cross on top.
Bonfire Night Four hundred years ago, in 1605, a man called Guy Fawkes and a group of plotters attempted to blow up the Houses of Parliament in London with barrels of gunpowder placed in the basement. They wanted to kill King James and the kings leaders. When Queen Elizabeth 1st took the throne of England she made some laws against the Roman Catholics. Guy Fawkes was one of a small group of Catholics who felt that the government was treating Roman Catholics unfairly. They hoped that King James 1st would change the laws, but he didn't. Guy Fawkes was taken to the Tower of London. He was tortured and questioned about the other plotters. To start with he didn't tell the soldiers anything about the plot. But, eventually he started to tell the truth. In celebration of his survival, King James ordered that the people of England should have a great bonfire on the night on 5 th November. The event is still commemorated annually in England on 5 th November by fireworks and burning guys (effigies) on bonfires. As well as burning effigy of Guy Fawkes, the bonfires are used to cook potatoes wrapped in foil, they call it jacket potatoes. In main town and cities, torch-lit processions are also popular on this night too.
Christmas Day Christmas Day is celebrated in the United Kingdom on December 25. It traditionally celebrates Jesus Christ's birth but many aspects of this holiday have pagan origins. Christmas is a time for many people to give and receive gifts and prepare special festive meals. The traditional Christmas dinner in England is a mouthwatering affair with the main dish being roasted turkey with vegetables and sauces. The dessert is usually a rich, fruity Christmas pudding with brandy sauce.
IMAGES RESOURSES 1.Шаблон: (Бойкова Надежда Ивановна, МОУ СОШ 8 г.Архангельск, учитель английского языка)
TEXT RESOURSES О.А. Письменная «Окна в англоязычный мир», М: Логос, 2005, 544 с.