Презентация на тему: " Teaching Vocabulary A word is a microcosm of human consciousness. Vygotsky." — Транскрипт:
Teaching Vocabulary A word is a microcosm of human consciousness. Vygotsky
A word cannot be taught. It can be presented, explained, included in all kinds of activities, and experienced in all manner of associations … but ultimately it is learned by the individual. As language teachers, we must arouse interest in words… From Communicating Naturally in a Second Language, CUP
Means of presentation Translation Real things, Pictures Actions/gestures Definitions Example sentences Situations
Look up the dictionary! 1 st in the world, Assyria: 7 th B.C. Greeks: 5 th BC (Homer) Chinese dictionary: 2 nd AD Italiano-Tedesco: 1477, 1 st bilingual English: 1604, Robert Cawdrey 3,000 dif 1755, Samuel Johnson 1828, Noah Webster, 70, , Oxford English Dictionary, 425k
extraordinary written f Spoken form Meanings – 1. v unusual, surprising 2. more impressive = unusual, incredible Frequency – S3 W3 Connotations – v much greater, appr or disappr BUT approving if about a person
extraordinary Register – BrE quite/most extraordinary, spoken BrE How extraordinary! Collocations – 1.e meeting/session 2.minister e Grammatical behaviour – its e that, e thing to do/say/happen Derivations – extraordinarily adv, extraordinaire adj, only after noun, humourous, chef extraordinaire
= passionate, Latin ardere = burn Literary. Showing strong feeling of love
regale régaler, from Old French gale 'pleasure, fun' From there he would descend and regale visitors with his anecdotes. Phrasal verb, written Regale sb with sth
Phrasal verbs 1.I, e.g. come to 2.T inseparable, e.g. look into 3.T separable, e.g. put off 4.3-part, e.g. put up with T inseparable
Phrasal verbs groups Lexical verb: get up/ back/ off/ over etc Particles: Drive/cool/ stick/ kick/ note down
procure In the Soviet times most products had to be procured. After the war the government procured an official pardon for ex- fighters to establish peace. He was accused of procuring weapons for terrorists T formal
Formal - informal Possession of such a letter is not obligatory but should greatly facilitate entry. Its not absolutely necessary to have this letter, but if you do have it, itll make it much easier to get into the country.
Informal - formal Subject to alteration, especially in adverse weather conditions. These arrangements may have to be changed, particularly if the weathers bad.
Mark the register Dear Scott, I have booked Diana to arrive in Barcelona at on 19 th August. I hope the lateness of the hour doesnt discommode you too much. Di will be flying out on 25 th August. Are you cool with these arrangement? If not, I can change them no probs. Regards,
look carefully/closely take/have a look at analyze study check check over inspect go through/go over look over scrutinize To examine something
scrutinise N scru.ti.ny N scru.ti.neer N scruple Adj scru.pu.lous Word family
ponder Latin ponderare = to weigh formalto spend time thinking carefully and seriously about a problem, a difficult question, or something that has happened [= consider]
He continued to ponder the problem as he walked home. Holyfield had a considerable advantage over his ponderous opponent Inquiry should be done boldly, whether applied to innovation or ponderous theoretical matter.
When the Greek Gods made his life miserable, the hero Odysseus had no choice but to endure.
endure V Adj enduring N endurance Adj endurable Word formation
elicit When her knockelicited no response, she opened the door and peeped in. The test uses pictures to elicit words from the child. The longest story is so full of pathos that the joke lines elicit only sympathy, not laughter.
sheer She was wearing sheer stockings. The sheer size of the country makes communication difficult. Ill never forget the look of sheer joy on her face.
sheer Adj 1.heavy, large 2.pure 3.v steep 4.thin and fine Polysemy
They saw cliffs which rose sheer from the sea. The boat sheered away and headed out to sea. Some words can be more than one part of speech!
One more for the list now / gift : present steep / large consume / read consider / weigh bring forth / draw out go through / put up with
Ponder/devour/endure/elicit/sheer Kindness is contagious! One act of kindness may __ another. When Henry saw his perfect test score, he boasted of his __ brilliance. Nowadays we hardly have to __ muscle pain; anyone can easily purchase over-the-counter painkillers. Context!
Ponder/devour/endure/elicit/sheer Theresa hadnt eaten in hours, and she couldnt wait to __ the meals placed before her. Maya liked to think about infinity, a concept she could __ for hours. Context!
Verbal analogy Public – private Extraordinary Ardent Sheer Weigh – heavy Scrutinise Devour Regale Ponder
cater Phr v cater for sb/sth; cater to sb/sth Word family Caterer n, catering n, self-catering n Date: Origin:cater 'someone who provides food, caterer' (14-17 centuries), from Anglo-French acatour, from Old North French acater 'to buy'
Phrasal verb = V+ adverb (ahead, away, back) Can stand alone: It went astray. Personal pronoun goes before the particle: They called him up last week.
Prepositional verb = V+ preposition (at, for, from) Needs a following noun phrase: The dog went for the postman. Personal pronoun goes after the particle: They called on him last week.
Phrasal-prepositional verbs: look forward to, get away with
completion, direction to higher level: Times up! - finished up
down back away out off in on over through round atby
adorn = decorate, trim formal Grammar: adorn sth with sth W family: N adornment
abate Public anger does not appear to be abating Steps are to be taken to abate pollution. Until the storm abates, I think Ill just pull over to the side of the road. His kindlier feelings abated, to be replaced by a resurgence of ill humour.
enthral Am E enthrall W gr: usually passive be enthralled by/ with sb/sth
UK / US difference: Odor - odour Centre – center Scrutinise – scrutinize Sport jacket – sports jacket Spring onion – green onion Cuff – turn up
UK / US difference: quite quite/most extraordinary BrE not v enthusiastic about sth AmE makes the adj stronger Emphasis (stress): BrE quite – not very, adj – very AmE – always very
very interesting:fascinating, gripping, riveting, engrossing, enthralling, spellbinding riveting or gripping is so interesting or exciting that you do not want to stop watching it, reading it etc something that is engrossing, such as a book or your work, is so interesting that you do not notice anything that is happening around you
a story, film, piece of music etc that is spellbinding is so original or interesting that you are unable to think about anything else while you are reading it, watching it etc a story, film, game etc that is mesmerizing or enthralling is very interesting and exciting, so that you give all your attention to it
former S2 W1 In former times/years Sb/sths former self Be a shadow/ghost of your former self
The local school was __ a hospital. I was looking at the house yesterday, and it needs something, some kind of __. It's the most __ house for children I've seen. The strange voices in her head __, but at a heavy price. It is clear that food sales in pubs are increasing faster than those in any other sector of the __ industry. derivatives
Cater/adorn/enthrall/abate/former Boxing is a violent sport, a fact that __ many of the sports fans. When you see a fighters shorts __ with a skull-and- crossbones logo, you know that some of the sports participants are only too eager to __ to their fans thirst for blood. Paragraph
Cater/adorn/enthrall/abate/former Many retired fighters, including __ heavyweight champ Muhammad Ali, suffer from the excessive blows they have absorbed in the ring. Until the publics love of violence __, we can count on more violence in the ring and more injuries to the sports practitioners. Paragraph
The Last Word Abate – lessen the intensity Devour – increase the intensity Which other list words reflect intensity?
What makes the words difficult? Pronunciation Spelling Length & complexity Grammar Meaning Range, connotation and idiomaticity
Grouping into Initial vowel lists Parts of speech Change to make sense: –Extraordinary person –Ardent person –Sheer person –Former person Words to use about a person Verbs to take an object (person/thing)
The new chief executive knew hed have a hard time trying to equal the __ leader in terms of popularity, effectiveness and reputation. When his parents showed their son his first bicycle, an expression of __ delight appeared on the boys face. The Brandts look forward all year to their tree-trimming party, where everyone gets a chance to select a trinket to __ the tree.
As the campfire burned, the scoutmaster __ the boys with a couple of amusing ghost stories. The principal, hoping to __ a confession, told the student in great detail all the convincing evidence he had gathered. The restaurant owner knew what his customers liked, and he made a pile of money because he was smart enough to __ to their tastes.
After Philip had been caught cheating, his teacher sent him to detention and encouraged him to use his time there to __ the foolishness of his ways. Before you sign the contract, you had better __ each and every word. Because Romeo had so __ ly confessed his true affections, Juliet could find little reason to hide hers.
The New York Yankees began the season in __ fashion by playing a pair of games in – of all places – Tokyo! Even though you earned only a B on the third-quarter report card, now is not the time to __ your efforts; with a solid forth quarter, you can still earn an A in this class. Yitzhak Perlmans violin solo __ the audience, who could only wonder at the quality of the sound.
After having fasted for an entire day, Bill __ the first meal that was placed before him. When TV first appeared on the scene, some people wondered whether this new invention would __, but now, many years later, TV is more popular than ever. Terri had so much fun using her friends Play Station that she was eager to __ one of her own.
On Your Own Write a good body paragraph about the fascination you had when a child. Include at least five words. Strong topic sentence Several supporting Ss Strong clincher sentence to wrap it up
Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. David Wilkins