Our calculations showed, that the mass of the spacecraft with a man must be somewhere about five tons. On rocket - the famous "seven", or R-7 and installed the third stage, which provides the execution of the task. When it decided to one of the major difficulties in the time - the need for the launch of the rocket engine in a vacuum, because the engine of the third stage it was necessary to include already in the airless space. IN the USSR this work was headed by Sergei Pavlovich Korolev. Already by the middle of 1958 is shown the general scheme of space ship for flight cosmonaut of the ship shall be composed of two compartments, one of them - the lander to return cosmonaut on the Earth, the second was called the instrument-aggregate, it housed the service systems of the spacecraft and brake propulsion (ТДУ). The form of the descent vehicle decided to choose the form of the sphere, it is significantly easier all necessary calculations of the return of the capsule to the Earth. By the spring of 1960, the first flying prototype of the ship was ready. In parallel with the creation of the ship was development of missiles, as for man's flight into space required rocket more powerful than the one that wrote the first satellite.
Remembering the "popular indignation" about the use of dogs in the experiments, all launches of missiles are secretive. It was decided to inform about them only with a successful outcome. After all, those Belka and Strelka were only alternates other two dogs-a cosmonaut - Gulls and Chanterelles. It is Chaika and Lisichka to do what has been done Protein and Clockwise three week slater.28 July 1960 launched rocket "East 8к72"the first in the USSR, which was to return to earth, but on the 19-th second of the rockets fell off the side of the block of the first stage, she fell and exploded, pilots Gull(Leopard) and Fox were killed. Eyewitnesses tell that S.P.. Korolev, with tenderness dating back to Lisichka, whispered to her before the start: "I really want you to come back"...
Flight of the next space shuttle with the dogs and the Bee Fly, running 1 December 1960, failed - when returning to the Land of the capsule was destroyed, going down on a non-nominal trajectory. August 19, 1960, was held on the successful launch of the spaceship- satellite, named the official reports of the second. On board the ship were in a special cabin, two dogs - dogs Belka and Strelka. Conventional pet-tykes, purebred dogs worse endured the preparations for the flight. After a day of flight they returned to Earth. It was a fantastic success. In the course of the flight simulated several variants of systems of orientation, on board the ship were installed devices for evaluating the radiation safety of the flight and study of x-ray radiation of the Sun. At the same time with the help of this equipment watched the development of the solar outbreaks in regions of the spectrum, inaccessible when observed from the earth's surface.
In December 1960, made another attempt to launch the ship with dogs on board, it happened on December 22. However, fails a third stage of the rocket, and the capsule landed deep in the taiga in the area of the river Lower Tunguska. All measures should be taken to find the lander and deliver it to the enterprise. This expedition was headed by Arvid Vladimirovich, Dogs Comet and a Joke (Gulka and Alfa) have suffered immense overloading on return to Earth and conditions of minus forty degrees in the place of landing. In different sources dog names strife, which is associated with the custom of giving a more "harmonious" names before starting. Because of the refusal of the catapult space traveler stayed in the descent capsule, which saved their lives. On the second day after landing they were saved. one of the oldest of the companions of s. p. Korolev, which was to withdraw from combat platoon of the system of emergency undermining of the descent module, installed on the case of the landing of the machine out of the reach for the evacuation of the place. The ship was found.
Were prepared by the two successful start, which were held on 9 and 25 march In the course of these flights was repeated fully the flight program with a man on board. Start flight, landing. The chair of the astronaut was anthropometric dummy, it was called "Ivan Ivanovich", the similarity with the man was complete, he even put some reason in the usual suit. After the vestments in the suit, on the face of Ivan Ivanovich to start on march 25, put the sheet of drawing paper with the inscription "layout", so as not to frighten those who by chance he could find before rescuers. To check your voice communications in him was fabricated tape recorder, which recorded a song in the choir them. Pyatnitsky, again, that in case of failure could have occurred shadow of suspicion that the man had been killed, and no dummy. Dog Nigella in flight on march 9, placed in a small container that place where the flight cosmonaut should be food container intended for the astronaut during his flight.
April 12, 1961 in 9.07 moscow time from Baikonur started the spacecraft "Vostok-1". For the first time in space departed man - Yuri Gagarin. 108 minutes around the Earth lasted flight of the first cosmonaut
In Addition Gagarin, were more applicants on the first flight into space; all of them were twenty and a person (Group of air force 1). The candidates were recruited precisely among fighter pilots under the decision of the Queen, who believed that such pilots already have the experience of overload, stress situations and differences. twenty applicants selected six, Korolev in a hurry, as there were data, that on April 20, 1961, his man in space will send the americans. And so the start was planned to appoint between 11 and 17 of April, The one who will fly into space, determined at the last moment, at the meeting of the civil code, they are the yury Gagarin and his understudy Herman Titov. It has produced three posts TASS on the flight of Gagarin into space. The First Is"Successful", the second in case, if it falls on the territory of another country or in the world's oceans - the"Appeal to the governments of other countries", with the request to help in the search, and the third - "Tragic"if the Gagarin not return alive.
Yuri Gagarin was born on march 9, 1934 in the village of Klushino district of Smolensk region, not far from the city Gdgatsk, which is now renamed to Gagarin. On the origin comes from the peasants. In August 1951, Gagarin goes to Saratov industrial technical school and 25 October 1954 for the first time came in the Saratov flying club. In 1955, Yuri Gagarin made significant progress, graduated with honors from the school and made the first solo flight on a plane Yak October 1955, Gagarin was drafted into the army and sent to Orenburg in the 1-st military aviation school for pilots. on October 25, 1957, Gagarin school finished.
The triumph of the inhabitants of our country was not the limit, people crowds thronged to the street, everywhere there were spontaneous demonstrations. The whole world was delighted by this achievement. All understood the start of a new era - the era of human space flight. It seemed incredible, it bothered and roused the wildest fantasies. The people of our generation never experience such joy and pride for their country.