What is a solvent? Chemical substance which is used to dissolve or dilute other substances and materials (solutes) without chemical changes.
Main Dangers of solvents Toxic effects Corrosive effects Flammable nature Reactive nature – incompatible chemicals
How can solvents affect health? Some of the short-term effects are: irritation of eyes, lungs and skin; headache; nausea; dizziness; light-headedness. Increased chance of having an accident. Long-term effects e.g. dermatitis. Unconsciousness and even death can result from exposure to very high concentrations of solvent vapours.
How can solvents get into the body? Breathing in vapours and fumes. Contact with skin Ingestion (e.g. hand to mouth contact, eating with contaminated hands)
Classification of Solvents Inorganic solvents –water and aqueous solutions containing special additives (surfacants, detergents, PH buffers, inhibitors). – acids and bases e.g. liquid anhydrous ammonia (NH 3 ),concentrated sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) Organic solvents –Oxygenated solvents contain oxygen. e.g. alcohols, glycol ethers, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ketones, esters, and glycol ether/esters. –Hydrocarbon solvents consist only of hydrogen and carbon atoms. -Aliphatic solvents: have straight-chain structure; e.g.hexane, gasoline, kerosene. -Aromatic solvents: have benzene ring structure; e.g. benzene, toluene and xylene. –Halogenated solvents contain halogenic atoms :(Cl, F, Br or I).
Hazards Classification Risk to health resulting from acute, repeated or prolonged exposure: –very toxic or toxic –harmful –corrosive –irritant –cancer causing –hazards to reproduction –can cause non-heritable birth defects –sensitizing Fire and explosion hazards may be classified as follows –explosive –oxidizing –extremely flammable –highly flammable –flammable The following properties present a hazard to the environment and are : –toxic to living organisms –persistent in the environment –bioaccumulative
Danger of cumulative effects, may cause cancer. Use in fume hood and wear protective clothing. Contact with the skin must be avoided. Avoid exposure to vapour or liquid Keep container tightly closed. Wash hands after use. If you feel unwell seek medical advice. Toxic (T) and Very Toxic (T+) Examples Toxic Acids (e.g. hydrochloric, nitric, oxalic) Benzene Carbon disulphide Chlorinated hydrocarbons Highly toxic chemicals Arsenic compounds Inorganic cyanides Mercury compounds Selenium and its compounds Thallium salts
Harmful (X n ) substances Health risk if swallowed, inhaled or if it penetrates the skin. Do not breath in, use fume hood or face mask. Use protective clothing. Do not eat, drink or smoke after use and wash with plenty of water after contact with skin. Examples of Harmful Chemicals Alkyl bromides and chlorides e. g. bromomethane, iodomethane Aromatic and alaphatic amines.g. aniline, nitroaniline Phenols and aromatic nitro compounds
Corrosive (C) substances Causes severe burns, destroys living tissue! Wash immediately with plenty of water in case of contact with eyes or skin. Wear gloves and goggles, remove all contaminated clothing. Examples of Corrosive Chemicals Acids and Bases ("caustics" or "alkalis"). Dehydrating agents e.g. phosphorous pentoxide and calcium oxide. Halogens and halogen salts e.g. bromine, zinc chloride, sodium hypochlorite. Organic halides and organic acid halides such as acetyl chloride. Acid anhydrides. Some organic materials such as phenol ("carbolic acid").
Storage of Acids and Bases Corrosive storage cabinets separated from all other chemicals. They should not be stored in unapproved metal cabinets or on high shelves. Organic acids and organic bases may be stored with the flammables, but acid resistant plastic trays must carefully segregate them. Perchloric, Hydrofluoric and Nitric acid must be stored separately (e.g. in nalgene buckets).
Irritating (X i ) substances A chemical, which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact.chemicalcorrosiveinflammatory May cause problems with eyes, respiratory system and skin. Be sure to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) (such as gloves, goggles, aprons or dust masks) that is effective for the kind of irritant you are working with.personal protective equipment (PPE) Provide good ventilation or use in a fume hood. Wash with water after contact. Examples Solvents e.g acetone, ethanol Weak acids, e.g. acetic, citric Bases e.g. NaHCO 3 Sulphates e.g. ZnSO 4, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4, Oxides e.g. Ag 2 O, Fe 2 O 3,Al 2 O3
Flammable (F) A liquid is considered to be flammable if it has a flash point less than 37.8 º C, e.g. chlorobenzene. Liquid substances and preparations having Flash points below 21 º C are said to be highly flammable, e.g. ethanol, methanol, propanol, toluene. Solids and preparations are highly flammable if they readily catch fire after brief contact with a source of ignition and continue to bum after removal of the source of ignition. Some substances and preparations, evolve highly flammable gases in dangerous quantities when they come into contact with water or damp air. Note: A liquid is considered to be combustible if it has a flash point of 37.8ºC or more, but less than 93.3ºC, as determined by the appropriate test method.
Extremely Flammable (F+) Liquids with flash points below 0 º C and boiling points below or equal to 35 º C (e.g. acetone, THF, ethyl acetate) and gaseous substances and preparations which are flammable in contact with air at ambient temperature and pressure Keep away from open fires, sources of heat and sparks. Flammable liquids should be stored in a well ventilated metal cabinet (with drip trays). Use a flammable storage cabinet or the shelf below a chemical fume hood.
NameFlash Point ºC acetaldehyde-38 acetone-18 acetonitrile6 acetyl chloride4 acrylonitrile0 benzene-11 butyl alcohols24-29 carbon disulfide-30 chlorobenzene28 chloromethane<0 cyclohexane-20 1,2-dichloroethane13 diethylamine26 diethyl carbonate25 diethyl ether-45 dioxan12 Examples F and F+ liquids
Oxidizing Agent (O) May cause fires when reacted with other materials such as alcohols, carbohydrates and cellulose. Keep away from combustible material. Keep container tightly closed. Should be stored separately from organic solvents and incompatible compounds. Examples Perchloric acid, chlorates and perchlorates Chromates, dichromates, permanganates, persulphates and periodates Nitric acid, nitrates, sodium nitrite Liquid oxygen and liquid air, peroxides
Explosive (E) Unstable compounds. May explode if subject to heat, shocks or friction. Store away from other materials. Avoid using if a safer alternative can be used. If this is not possible use the smallest possible quantity and do on a bench surrounded by safety screens (on all sides). Examples: Chlorates, perchlorates and peroxides. Acetylene gas Ammonium nitrate. Trinitrtoluene
Environmentally dangerous (N) substances Can cause environmental damage, harmful to fish, aquatic organisms, other animals, plants or the ozone layer Do not empty into drains Examples Pesticides, varnishes, lead and mercury compounds, many copper salts, CFCs
What precautions should you take? Check the hazards of the particular solvents you use, the precautions to take when you use them and the procedures to follow in an emergency (MSDS sheets and container labels ). Always use a fume hood if harmful or toxic. Keep doors and windows open in confined spaces. Use breathing apparatus or chemical filters when dealing with poisonous or irritant substances outside the fume hood Keep protective equipment clean.
Use minimum amounts, use dispensers where possible to keep evaporation to a minimum and reduce spillage and keep lids on containers unless contents are being poured or dipped etc. Always wear goggles when heating chemicals, doing preparative chemistry, or standing near a chemical reaction. Avoid skin contact with solvents by wearing suitable protective clothing (gloves, lab coat, goggles or face shield etc).
Hand Protection Gloves must be resistant to the specific chemical with which you are working. For concentrated acids and alkalis or organic solvents, natural rubber, neoprene, or nitrile gloves are recommended. Remove gloves when opening doors, typing on computers or using the phone! For handling hot objects, gloves made of heat- resistant materials should be available and kept near the vicinity of ovens or furnaces. Special insulated gloves should be worn when handling very cold objects such as liquid Nitrogen (LN 2 ).
Do not eat or smoke in areas where there are solvents. Wash hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory area and after changing gloves. Never use solvents for washing the skin. They remove the natural protective oils from the skin and can cause irritation and inflammation. May be toxic or facilitate absorption of a toxic chemical. Keep away from naked flames as very toxic gases may be given off (by chlorinated solvents) and many solvents are flammable.
Monitoring solvent exposure OLEV - Occupational Exposure Limit Values These are time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations for up to a 10-hour workday during a 40-hour workweek. A short-term exposure limit (STEL) is a 15-minute TWA exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during a workday. For example Acrylic Acid has an OLEV of 30mg/m 3 over 8 hours and 60mg/m 3 over 15 minutes. Use value (include units) in the Code of practice for the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, If there is no value for your particular chemical in that document, consult the MSDS or the EH40/2003 Occupational exposure limits 2002 (Published by the British HSA).
What do you do if affected by solvents? Anyone who appears to have been affected by solvents should be taken into the fresh air immediately and given appropriate first-aid treatment. Heavily contaminated clothing should be removed as soon as possible. Solvent splashes should be washed off the skin with plenty of water and any wounds covered with a suitable dressing. Splashes of solvent in the eye should be treated by washing the eye with water for at least 10 minutes before the injured person is transferred to hospital.
Your employer must: assess the risks to your health from your use of solvents and the precautions necessary to protect it; introduce measures to prevent you from being exposed to solvents or, where this is not reasonably practicable, ensure that your exposure is adequately controlled; ensure that control measures are used, equipment is properly maintained and checked and procedures are observed; where necessary, monitor your exposure and carry out appropriate health surveillance; inform you about the risks and the precautions necessary to protect your health; train you in the use of control measures and any protective equipment which is required.
You must: co-operate with your employer; make full use of any control measures, use the protective equipment provided and report any defective equipment; where appropriate, attend health surveillance procedures at your workplace. not use any materials containing solvents unless the area is adequately ventilated and, where necessary, you are provided with suitable respiratory protection. not enter a confined space where there may be solvent vapours, unless your employer has ensured it is safe for you to do so by ventilating the space and testing the atmosphere, or unless special precautions are taken.
Hazard Information and Packaging (for Supply) Regulations All products (Substances or Preparations) that are classified as dangerous under the CPL Regulations require a hazard label which must include:hazard label - The common name of the substance - Contact details of the manufacturer - An appropriate hazard warning/ danger symbol - Standard risk (R) and safety (S) phrases Other label information may include procedures for: - Proper handling - Storage - Emergency response
When more than one danger symbol is used – the obligation to apply symbol T or T+ will make symbols C, Xn and Xi optional – the obligation to apply symbol C will make symbols Xn and Xi optional – the obligation to apply symbol E will make symbols F and O optional If a preparation is classified both harmful Xn and irritant Xi, it will be labelled harmful Xn, and the irritant properties should be pointed out with appropriate R-phrases. The total amount of the substance in the preparation has an effect in choosing the danger symbols, R- and S-phrases.
Flammable (RIO), Harmful by inhalation and in contact with the skin (R20/21), Irritating to skin (R38) Keep out of reach of children (S2) Avoid contact with eyes (S25) Hazard Symbol XYLENE Xn Name and Address of Manufacturer Risk Phrases Contact Details of Manufacturer Chemical Name Safety Phrases The label has to contain all of the following:
N.B. If you transfer some of the chemical to another container you must label it with a copy of the original label. Samples - All samples should be properly labeled i) Name of chemical and solvent ii) Name of owner iii) Date iv) An appropriate hazard warning/ danger symbol -Old samples should be disposed of before you leave (or graduate)!.
Disposal of Solvents –There are three categories which are disposed of by the "waste solvent" route. Waste flammable solvent (Ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, xylene, petroleum ethers etc.) Waste chlorinated solvent (Chloroform, dichloromethane trichlorethylene etc.) Waste oil –These should be stored in approved safety cans and sent to the HMF when they are no more than 2/3 full. –Solvents containing toxic or carcinogenic substances should also be separated. All chemical waste must be disposed of promptly through the Hazardous Materials Facility (HMF) materials. materials
It is dangerous to mix chlorinated solvents and flammable solvents together. –Examples are chloroform and acetone or methanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide, carbon tetrachloride and dimethylformamide in the presence of iron. On no account should oxidisers be added to flammable solvent, since there is a high risk of fire or explosion. – In some cases, (for example with nitric acid) there will be a violent blow out of material due to the immediate heating effect. –In other cases (for example with bromine and ethanol) there can be a delayed reaction which may cause the drum to rupture if it has been sealed before the heat is generated by the reaction. The addition of water or acids to the waste in the drums is also dangerous since it corrodes the drums, eventually causing leaks of the waste solvent.
SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL ROUTE Non-contaminated paper and packaging and uncontaminated gloves. Polymerised gels adequately wrapped (inside used glove etc) Lab waste bins or black plastic sacks Sharps, needles, fine broken glass, pipette tips, disposable pipettes contaminated paper, plastics and gloves Yellow sharps bins to be disposed of via the HMF. Broken glassware (if contaminated, may require decontaminating before disposal) Rigid, puncture-proof containers which are clearly marked "CLEAN BROKEN GLASS" before discarding in the solid waste stream.
Toxic Waste Never throw toxic substances or glassware into the waste paper bin! All toxic waste should be segregated and clearly labelled and disposed of via the HMF. Contaminated gloves and tissues should be disposed of in the same manner. Tissues containing large amounts of solvents should be vented in the fume hood Containers which have been emptied but which may contain residues of hazardous chemicals should be treated as hazardous. In cases of doubt about the degree of hazard, the waste should be classified as the highest hazard.
Care of Equipment Balance Extremely delicate Always use a vessel to weigh substances in Avoid spillage (especially CNTs!) and clean after use NOTE: Clean spatula after use also! Ultrasonic bath Fill up to 1 inch below surface Never leave on overnight Never drop things into it when switched on Do not place your hands into bath while operating! Do not use with conc. acid ( unless in sealed tube) Clean after use
Vacuum Ovens Get instructions on how to use Always use a trap and surge vessel Do not switch on high heat without checking what is inside! Do not leave on with door open! Clean after use Gas Cylinders Get instructions on how to use Store in a cool, well ventilated place (properly chained to the wall) Valves and screw threads should never be greased as this can lead to an explosion Cryogenic liquids Cold burns, wear appropriate gloves and shoes Asphyxiation in poorly ventilated space Fire danger: Liquid nitrogen (b.p C) contains some liquid oxygen (b.p C) so before complete evaporation there may be a high % of O 2 left. Oxygen enrichment also occurs near surface. Risk of explosion: over-pressurisation from large volume expansion ratio
Liquid Nitrogen DEWAR Safety LOCATION PL/Raman lab (75L) MI (50L) Fitzgerald (25L) Very cold liquid -195 ˚ C Pressure can build up inside the DEWARs 1 Vent Valve – releases pressure 2 Pressure Gauge 3 Tap – for filling/ attaching to machine 4 Transfer Valve – attaching to machine
Collecting full DEWAR outside CHECK 1 Vent Valve open 2 Pressure zero If Vent Valve closed? Open slowly standing out of the way of the vent *ALWAYS RECHECK THE PRESSURE* When pressure zero Wheel DEWAR indoors. Place in lift. Put up warning chain. Take stairs to lab. *** NEVER ENTER A LIFT THAT CONTAINS A DEWAR (full or otherwise)***
Principles of Good Chemical Practice Do not run in the lab Take care when opening and closing doors Read and obey signs before entering Never carry bottles by the neck. Suitable bottle carriers should be used for transporting Winchesters. Liquid chemicals should not be accompanied in the lift. A chain is provided to block access to the lift carriage, the lift with cargo is sent to your desired floor while the accompanying person should walk up. Large glass flasks should also be supported at the base as well as clamped at the neck. Glass tubing should always be carried in an upright position.
Avoid carrying glassware with wet hands. Never remove chemicals or equipment without asking Could be a hazardous substance Could be needed to neutralize a hazardous spill Always use a pipette filler when using pipettes. Never look into the mouth of a test-tube (or beaker, flask etc) And dont point it at anyone else! Do not inhale vapours when testing odours. Waft gently with hand. Never try to force a frozen ground glass joint. Ask an expert (e.g glass blower) for help. Glass ampoules Ampoules of volatile chemicals must be thoroughly cooled and wrapped in strong cloth before opening
Never work alone Unless there is someone within calling distance, who is aware of your presence. Report all accidents and breakage Lab Technician (breakage) Chief Technician (accidents) Safety Officer (accidents and hazards) Study experimental details, theory and hazards before starting Make sure you understand what you are going to do. Read safety sheets supplied with hazardous chemicals. If in doubt ASK. Keep a lab notebook Observe carefully Record accurately Cross reference all spectra
Keep work bench clean Do not clutter. Area should be free from scraps of paper and paper towels. Glassware should be clean and dry before use. Reagents and chemicals should be returned to their storage area immediately after use. Clamp all equipment and glassware and keep well back from the edge of the laboratory bench. Position apparatus thoughtfully in case you need to move apparatus before the entire reaction is completed. Make sure all rubber tubing is connected to tap and experiment with clips and that it cannot be pulled out of the sink. Grease ground glass joints or stopcocks unless a lubricant will contaminate the system (in which case Teflon sleeves can be used). Do not mix oil baths and change when dirty.
If your experiment has to be left on overnight it must display an unattended apparatus form with details of special procedural hazards, how to terminate in an emergency and a contact address and phone no (24hr). Chemical reactions also need a usage risk assessment form. Machinery should not be left running unless it is safe. Make sure all machines have necessary guards etc. Never leave water funnels on overnight!
Clean all glassware after use Its easier, safer (as the nature of the contaminant will be known) and more considerate for your colleagues Methods: i) Soap (e.g. Tepol, Vim) ii) Decon (5% aqueous solution); Particularly suitable for silicone oils, greases, polymeric residues and tars. iii) Acid (for metals); e.g. 6M HCl or aqua regia, acidic peroxide solution or chromic acid for stubborn residues (BUT USE WITH EXTREAM CAUTION!) iv) Base bath (for organics) v) Organic solvents vi) Ultrasonic bath Rinse with IPA and distilled water (or acetone for quick drying)
Note Contaminated items. Return glassware that contains chemicals or contamination to the researcher for proper disposal. Removing labels. When scraping labels, always brace the bottle against the sink so you have good control and the bottle doesn't slip.
Use a laboratory chemical hood when handling stock quantities of volatile hazardous chemicals or doing experiments which may expose you to chemical or toxic fumes. Protection is provided by room air that is drawn into the hood and vented to the atmosphere. The hood ventilation provides further protection by diluting the concentration of flammable gases below explosion limits.
NT are classified as Irritants (X i ) and therefore require the following hazard symbol, risk and safety phrases and should be used with protective equipment. Be sure to wear gloves, goggles, aprons and dust masks. Provide good ventilation or use in a fume hood. Wash with water after contact. R 36/37 Irritating to eyes and respiratory system. S26 In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. S36 Wear suitable protective clothing.
Issues in Nanotechnology Industry National Irish Safety Organisation/TUC Aug 2004 Nanotechnology - the new asbestos? – Well known that 'ultra fine' particles can damage human lungs e.g. Asbestos is still killing people 100 years on. –NP are likely to cause damage to human lungs because of their size and extreme aspect ratio (as they can get deep into the lungs). – They carry other chemicals including metals and hydrocarbons in with them, causing asthma and breathing problems. –They can get into the body through the skin, lungs and digestive system. This may cell damage by the creation of free radicals. – There is also a danger that once NP are in the bloodstream they will be able to cross the blood-brain barrier. –The human body has developed a tolerance to most naturally occurring elements but it has no natural immunity to new substances and is more likely to find them toxic.
Recommendations Follow MSDS for Activated carbon –Classified as harmful (Xn) –Risk Phrases R20: Harmful by inhalation, R36/37/38: Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin –Safety Phrases S22: do not breath dust, S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice S36/37: Wear suitable protective clothes and gloves Use Zero-Stat gun when handling NT Use PPA and respirators with HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filters Reduce Exposure –Production should be done within a contained process –For large amounts weigh out in a glove box –Isolate individuals –Monitor exposure concentrations
Dimethylformamide (DMF) MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. Mutagenic for bacteria The substance is toxic to blood, kidneys, liver, central nervous system Special Remarks on Chronic Effects on Humans: - Chronic exposure may affect genetic material. - May cause adverse reproductive effects(paternal and maternal) and birth defects. - May cause cancer although evidence for cancer shows inadequate data. May cause alcohol intolerance Repeated or prolonged exposure can produce target organs damage
Dimethylacetamide (DMA) Toxicity data Toxicity experienced on rats, mouses and rabbits (oral, intraperitoneal, intravenous) The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation and through the skin: Headache. Nausea. Vomiting. The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides) A harmful contamination of the air will be reached rather slowly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C.. Effects of long-term or repeated exposure The liquid defats the skin. The substance may have effects on the central nervous system and liver. Effects of short-term exposure The substance is irritating to the eyes and the skin
Toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated Gamma butyrrolactone (Liquid X) Capable of corneal injury. May develop, with possible permanent impairment of vision. The vapour is discomforting to the eyes causing pain and severe conjunctivitis. Causes skin irritation May be harmful if absorbed through the skin Causes eye irritation Very Harmful if inhaled Material may be irritating to mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract TARGET: Central nervous system Central nervous system depression may include general discomfort, symptoms of giddiness, headache, dizziness, nausea, anaesthetic effects, slowed reaction time, slurred speech and may progress to unconsciousness. Serious poisonings may result in respiratory depression and may be fatal. GBL is a prodrug of GHB (gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid). Metabolism takes place in stomach and blood plasma. GBL is longer acting and has a shorter onset than GHB. Weight for weight it is significantly more powerful. It is also used illegally under the street names Juice, Liquid Ecstasy or simply G.prodrugillegally
N-Methyl Pyrrolidone (NMP) CHRONIC EFFECTS: Overexposure may cause reproductive disorders based on test with lab animals. Target organs: bone marrow, thymus, spleen, and lymphatic system. caused reduced fertility in male rats and increased the time for female rats to become pregnant. Not studied in humans. In one report, a worker's exposure to NMP during the first trimester of pregnancy was linked to abnormal growth of the fetus Breathing excessive amounts for a short period of time causes headache, nausea, dizziness, clumsiness, drowsiness and other effects like those of being drunk. Repeated, frequent overexposure to NMP and other solvents over months or years can have long-lasting and possibly permanent effects on the nervous system. The symptoms of these long-term effects include fatigue, sleeplessness, poor coordination, difficulty in concentrating, loss of short-term memory, and personality changes such as depression, anxiety, and irritability. ACUTE EFFECTS: vapor or mist irritates eyes, mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract; causes skin irritation; prolonged exposure can cause stomach pains, vomiting, diarrhea.
Methanol Narcotic Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis. Toxic by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption Exposure (Ingestion or Inhalation) may cause eye, kidney, heart and liver damage Chronic or substantial acute exposure may cause serious eye damage, including blindness Irritant
Isopropanol (IPA) May cause skin irritation (Prolonged and/or repeated contact may cause defatting of the skin and dermatitis) Target Organs: Kidneys, central nervous system. Causes digestive and respiratory tract irritation (inhalation of vapor may cause respiratory tract irritation. May cause narcotic effects) May cause severe eye irritation and possible injury (burning sensation, redness, tearing, inflammation, and possible corneal injury ) May cause reproductive effects based upon animal studies May form explosive peroxides May cause kidney damage May cause central nervous system depression (headache, dizziness, etc.)
Ethanol May cause skin irritation Causes digestive and respiratory tract irritation (inhalation of vapor may cause respiratory tract irritation. May cause narcotic effects) Chronic use can cause serious liver damage May cause severe eye irritation and possible injury May cause reproductive effects based upon animal studies
Acetone Extremely flammable liquid and vapour Use of alcoholic beverages enhances toxic effects. Exposure may increase the toxic potential of chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as chloroform, trichloroethane. Effects central nervous system: high concentrations can produce central nervous system depression, narcosis, and unconsciousness. Causes irritation to the skin due to defatting action (redness, pain, drying and cracking of the skin, dermatitis) Causes irreversible irritation to respiratory tract: coughing, dizziness, dullness, and headache
Chloroform Causes cancer in laboratory animals IARC listed as a probable human carcinogen. Inhalation and ingestion are harmful and may be fatal Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis Exposure to alcohol may increase toxic effects Irritant May cause reproductive damage
Toluene Toxic by inhalation, ingestion or by absorption through skin Serious irritant May affect liver, kidneys, blood system and central nervous system Symptoms of overexposure may include fatigue, confusion, headache, dizziness, drowsiness Very high concentrations may cause unconsciusness and death Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis Exposure to alcohol may increase toxic effects
The final message You are not going to die using chemicals... BUT you MUST be carefull and take preacutions!!!!!!! Its just common sense FOR YOU AND THE PEOPLE AROUND YOU!!!!!
If its cold you cover up and you still can have some good fun... IF YOU DONT care of consequences Youll end up with pneumonia.... Just like mummy!!!
Drivers know that there are some rules and driving can be chaotic but still ordinate... Just like in Italy!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!