Fresco «the Christening of prince Vladimir» V.M.Vasnetsov. The Vladimir cathedral (Kiev) The term and concept Background Christening of prince Vladimir Establishment of the church organisation in Kiev Christening of other Russian earths Consequences of acceptance of Christianity Political consequences The cultural Consequences In a church historiography (Church stories) Estimation in the Soviet historiography Anniversary celebratings
The term and concept Expression «the Christening of Russia» is in «to Move time years». Under 6496 year from world creation (988 year approximately). …Lord Jesus Christ who has loved Russian earth and educated its christening sacred is blest. Under 1074 … There was also other brother, a name of Eremija which remembered a christening of the earth Russian. In the Russian historiography of New time the term is used for the first time by V.N.Tatischev («a christening of Slavs and Russia») and Н. M.Karamzin («a christening of Russia»). Along with it in the literature also with the equal basis terms «Education of Russia», «Christianity introduction», «Vladimir's reform» are used, etc.
background It is considered quite an established fact that princes of Askold and Dir c « болярами » and a people quantity have accepted a christening in Kiev from the bishop (probably, from Cyril and Mefodija), sent by Constantinople Patriahom Fotiem in the beginning or средине 860, soon after a campaign россов to Constantinople in 860 year. In the end of IX century Russian diocese already is registered in lists Constantinople епископий at first on 61st, then on 60th place. These events sometimes call the first (Fotievym, or Askoldovym) a christening of Russia. Христианкой there was a spouse of prince Igor, the grandma of prince Vladimir Svjatogo, princess Olga ( on July, 11th 969). Though about an exact times and a place of acceptance by it christenings exist various opinions, it is considered to be, according to the latest researches that it was christened in Constantinople in 957 year. Authentic data on reception by emperor Konstantin Bagrjanorodnym of which is considered to be it восприемником, contain in its treatise «About court ceremonies». Absence in the treatise of a mention of its christening gives the grounds to some researchers to assume that it could be already by then христианкой ; the treatise mentions there is nobody « пресвитера Grigory» in its retinue in which person some are inclined to see its confessor. According to V.N.Tatischev (on the basis of disputable Ioakimovsky annals), liking to Christians and Christianity the Kiev prince ( or 980) showed Jaropolk Svjatoslavich killed by Varangians by order of brother Vladimir Svjatogo. According to «to Move time years», till a christening of prince Vladimir «test of beliefs» took place: to Vladimir were offered, in particular, Islam from Volga Bulgarii, a Judaism from хазар and латинство. All of them have been rejected by the prince for the various reasons. Olga's christening in Tsargrad. A miniature from Radzivillovsky annals
Christening of prince Vladimir In the Story of time years it is dated 988 year, in 988 year the Kiev prince Vladimir Svjatoslavich has made decision to be christened from Constantinople Church. Then, in reign of Emperors of Vasily II and Konstantin VIII Porfirorodnyh sent by Constantinople Patriarch Nikolay II Hrisovergom clergy christened the Kiev people in waters of Dnepr and (or) Pochajny. According to Russian annals the Story of time years, the prince during a christening of the people has uplifted the following prayer: Боже великий, сотворивый небо и землю! При́зри на новыя люди сия и даждь им, Господи, уведети Тебе, истиннаго Бога, якоже уведеша Тя страны христианския, и утверди в них веру праву и несовратну, и мне помози, Господи, на супротивнаго врага, да надеяся на Тя и Твою державу, побежю козни его! Many historians carry Vladimir's christening to 987 year. On the Byzantian and Arabian sources, in 987 year Constantinople concludes with Russia the union for suppression of mutiny of Vardy Foki. The hand of Tsarevna Anna, sister of Emperors Vasily and Konstantin, the requirement the extremely humiliating for Romejsky василевсов was a condition of the prince. Then, at the height of war with Vardoj Fokoj Vladimir has attacked Korsun and has seized it, threatening Tsargrad. Emperors agree to give Anna for the prince under condition of Vladimir's preliminary christening which is named Vasily's name in honour of the восприемника Emperor Vasily II; Vladimir « вдасть for вено Korsun the Greek of the tsarina dividing» (in вено for the wife). In whole, in the Byzantian literature event 988 years remain almost not noticed as, on representations of Greeks, the reference of Russia has occurred one century earlier
Establishment of the church organisation in Kiev In the XX-th century the hypothesis that at Vladimir Kievskaja Tserkov was in initial dependence on Ohridsky hierarchy of the Bulgarian Church which at that time ostensibly possessed автокефалией has been put forward and supported by some church historians, but the majority of researchers are not inclined to divide it. Different names of the first Kiev metropolitan appear in Russian annalistic sources some. The tradition has affirmed as Russian Church in XVI century to consider as it Greek (or Syrian) metropolitan Michael ( Сириянина ) which in месяцеслове is called «as the first metropolitan Kiev». To metropolitan Michael the merit of the basis of the Zlatoverho- Mihajlovsky monastery in Kiev, and to the monks who have arrived with it the basis of the monastery which has received subsequently the name of Kievo-Mezhigorskogo is attributed. Sacred Sofia Kiev
Christening of other Russian earths It is known that the first episcopal chairs, except Kiev, was Novgorod, and also, probably, Chernigov both Vladimir-Volynsk and Belgorod (nowadays settlement Belogorodka near Kiev). On a part of territories the Christianity was spread by force; cult constructions of the pagans were thus destroyed, resisting were exposed to reprisals. According to some annalistic certificates, Novgorod has shown active resistance to Christianity planting: it was крещён in 990 year bishop Ioakimom with the military help Kiev воеводы Dobryni (the brother of mother of prince Vladimir - Malushi) and тысяцкого Putjaty. In Rostov and Murom resistance to Christianity planting, according to a traditional church history, proceeded till XII century: the two first bishop, sent to Rostov, have been expelled, and the third - St. Leonty - was lost from hands of pagans in 1073 (according to a prologue, in 993). Ростовчане were крещены only bishop Isaiej ( on May, 15th 1090), восшедшим on chair in To 1070, probably, the events described in "Life" by Avraamija Rostov, in particular the destruction by it of an idol of Velesa on which place was concern also will erect the Bogojavlensky monastery. Spas not Man-made. Novgorod Great. Second half XII centuries
Consequences of acceptance of Christianity Political consequences The christening of Russia has occurred before definitive split of Western and East churches, but during the period when it already has quite ripened and has received the expression both in dogma, and in mutual relation of the church and secular authorities. Thus, having accepted a christening from Romeev (Byzantines), Vladimir has included Russia in an orbit of the Byzantian statehood. So, to the Kiev grand duke in XII in Constantinople усвоялся a modest court title стольника. Kiev митрополия in Constantinople диптихах took a place among the last: in most ancient of them - 61, and in later, II Paleologe made at Andronik ( ) Cultural consequences Christianity acceptance promoted development of architecture and painting in its medieval forms, to penetration of the Byzantian culture, as to the successor of antique tradition. Christianity acceptance as state religion attracted liquidation of the pagan cults using before grand-ducal patronage with inevitability. Russian culture has been thus partially destroyed, in which hundreds years the paganism played the major role. Representatives of reactionary Russian spiritual elite were destroyed: magicians and ведуны. Assume that the beginning of year after Christianity acceptance in Kiev have started to consider from March, 1st, instead of from a new moon after day of a spring equinox, as earlier.
In a church historiography (Church stories) In месяцеслове Russian Church never was and there is no holiday (memoirs) in honour of events of years. Up to the XIX-th century beginning in Russia there was no history of Russian Church as scientific branch or subject matter: «the Short Church Russian History» metropolitan Moscow Platon (Levshin) ( М, 1805 in 2 ч became the first regular work.). The Russian tserkovno-historical literature XIX - the beginnings of the XX-th century in Russia and Russian church usually considered Christianity history since I century, connecting it with activity of apostle Andrey Pervozvannogo. Legally official Civil Charter РПЦ registered in the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation on May, 30th, 1991 (the latest were not published), said: «Russian Orthodox Church conducts the historical life from the Christening of Russia which were taking place in 988 year in Kiev at grand duke Vladimir.»
Estimation in the Soviet historiography In the book published in 1930 the Church and idea of autocracy in Russia is told about a christening of Russia the following: «Brought to us from Byzantium Orthodoxy has broken and has ruined violent pagan spirit wild freedom- loving росса, the whole centuries held the people in ignorance, was гасителем in Russian public life of true education, killed poetic creativity of the people, suppressed in it sounds of a live song, freedom-loving impulses to class clearing. Itself, drinking and подхалимствуя, drevne-Russian clergy has accustomed to drunkenness and subservience before ruling classes and the people, and the spiritual raw vodka-sermons and the plentiful tserkovno-book literature has definitively created soil for a full enslavement of workers in the power of the prince, the boyar and the severe official princely тиуна, creating court and punishment over oppressed weights.» The grant on stories of the USSR for preparatory branches of high schools of 1979 of the edition names Christianity introduction «the second religious reform» Vladimir I and states much more weighed estimation: « Christianity Acceptance strengthened the government and territorial unity of the Old Russian state. It had the big international value which consisted that Russia, having rejected primitive paganism, became now equal to other Christian people Christianity Acceptance has played the big role for development of Russian culture.»
Anniversary celebratings For the first time anniversary of event was officially celebrated in the Russian empire in «The annals of church events» bishop Arseny (Ivaschenko) mention opening on July, 15th that year charitable institutions for a shelter old and cripples. In Russian abroad the 950 anniversary of the Christening of Russia was marked. The christening 1000 anniversary was marked as well in the USSR as intrachurch anniversary; the basic celebrations passed in Moscow on June, 12th, 1988 in Danilovom a monastery (Pimen (the Patriarch Moscow) # Поместный the Cathedral 1988 and celebrating of the 1000 anniversary of the Christening of Russia see). The 1020 anniversary was celebrated in Kiev from July, 10 till July, 19th, 2008 at church and state levels. In celebrations have taken part Patriarch Constantinople Varfolomey I and the Patriarch Moscow and всея Russia Alex II. Since 2008 «Day of a christening of the Kiev Russia Ukraine» is declared by the state holiday of Ukraine. Anniversary also was celebrated on October, 23-25rd, 2008 in Belarus; celebrations were headed by Patriarch Moscow Alex II.