New word Etiology – этиология (причина заболевания) Conversion syndrome- конверсионный синдром (психические расстройства лёгкой и средней степени тяжести.) Rest is отдых External внешний Irritants раздражители Mental душевный Unconscious бессознательный Latent dreams скрытые сновидения Obvious dreams явные сновидения Thoughts into visions зрительные образы 2
Once... 3 May, sixth, 1856 In the city of Frejburg (nowadays Pshibor, the Czech Republic) was born Zigmund Freud. His father for 20 years was more senior mother. He had rigid, a domineering character. In the childhood of Zigmund felt to the father the love mixed with fear, and to mother which was soft and careful, he tested strong attachment.
Clever boy 4 Sigmund since the childhood showed mental abilities. He read much, well studied, interested in languages. Relatives recognized special endowments of the boy. Even the piano which the his sister played have taken out, that music didn't distract Sigmund.
Some dates The young man has arrived on medical branch in the Viennese university. Career of its practice doctor didn't attract. He hoped to devote life to a science. Freud has received degree of the doctor of medicine. Has got acquainted and has secretly become engaged with Martha Bernejs At Freud the oral cavity cancer is revealed. The scientist has transferred 33 painful operations, but continued to work till last days lives. Freud became the winner of the award Goethe.
Scientific work «Interpretation of dreams» (Толкование снов) «Psychopathology of ordinary life» (Психопатология обычной жизни) «One early memoirs Leonardo da Vinci» (Одно раннее воспоминание Леонарда да Винчи) «Totem and a taboo» (Тотем и табу) «Lectures on introduction in psychoanalysis» (Лекции по введению в психоанализ) «On that party of a principle of pleasure» (По ту сторону принципа удовольствия) «Psychology of weights and the analysis human I » (психология масс и анализ человеческого «Я») «I and It» (Я и Оно)
Some theories 7 1 Sigmund Freud has developed the theory of mental development of the individual; in formation of character and its pathologies Freud took away a general role to experiences of the early childhood. 2 Freud developed the point of view of other researchers that the dream is the ciphered message. Analyzing the associations arising at patients in connection with this or that detail of a dream, Freud did a conclusion about a frustration etiology. Realizing an origin of the disease, patients, as a rule, recovered. 3 Freud has become interested in hypnosis and its application in youth for rendering assistance by insane person. Later he has refused hypnosis, having preferred it a method of free associations and the analysis of dreams. These methods became a psychoanalysis basis. Freud also was interested in that he named a hysteria, and now it is known as a conversion syndrome.
Method of free associations 8 Freud has suggested to refuse a supervising role of consciousness at supervision over mental processes. It began to use a method of free associations. Patients were offered to relax on a couch and to say everything that comes to them mind. When it occurred, it appeared that powerful emotional inclinations carried away uncontrollable thinking in a direction to the mental conflict.
The theory of dreams 9 Substantive provisions of the theory of dreams of Freud say: 1) the Dream is the deformed assistant to something unconscious; the Maintenance unconscious is the forced out desires. 2) Function of dreams to preserve a dream. The dream is a compromise between requirement in the sleep and aspiring to break its unconscious desires The theory of dreams has been in detail stated by Freud in the book «Interpretation of dreams» (1900), its first large work on psychoanalysis which remained also one of its basic works Основные положения теории сновидений Фрейда гласят: 1)Сновидение это искажённый заместитель чего-то бессознательного; Содержание бессознательного есть вытесненные желания. 2)Функция сновидений оберегать сон. Сновидение это компромисс между потребностью во сне и стремящимися нарушить его бессознательными желаниями Теория сновидений была подробно изложена Фрейдом в книге «Толкование сновидений» (1900), его первой крупной работе по психоанализу, которая осталась и одним из основных его трудов
About dreams 10 Biological sense of a dream, Freud speaks, rest is: the organism which has tired for a day in a dream condition has a rest. The psychological sense of a dream consists in loss of interest to an external world. The dream is reaction of soul to external irritants, and the irritants having mental, though also the unconscious nature., However usually latent dreams before to appear in consciousness sleeping in the form of obvious dreams, pass special processing. This processing consists of four components: 1) transformation of thoughts into visions; 2) a condensation. Condensation action is shown that some elements of the latent dream in an obvious dream are embodied in one element 3) displacement; Displacement work is expressed in replacement of an element of the latent dream with a hint. The most important elements of the latent dream appear almost imperceptible in an obvious dream, and on the contrary. 4) Second processing. Secondary processing connects an obvious dream in more or less intelligent whole.
Some citations 11 The problem to make the person happy didn't enter into the plan of creation of the world We enter into the world the lonely and lonely we leave it Than to us it seems to stranger a dream, especially deep sense it bears. The person can appreciate and wish above all what it can't reach. Limitation of pleasure only increases its value. Задача сделать человека счастливым не входила в план сотворения мира Мы входим в мир одинокими и одинокими покидаем его Чем более странным нам кажется сон, тем более глубокий смысл он несет. Человеку свойственно превыше всего ценить и желать того, чего он достичь не может. Ограниченность удовольствия только увеличивает его ценность.
Why I chosen this person? 12 I think that thanks to Freud we today more close to self-understanding I consider its great because thanks to it some mental illnesses became curable Today a considerable quantity of people is interested, though to Sigmund Freud dreams considered senseless