MEANING Two or more persons come together to achieve a common objective, management come into existence. George. R. Terry : Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating & controlling, performed to determine & accomplish the objectives by the use of people & resources.
Peterson & Plowman : Management may be defined as a technique by means of which the purpose & objectives of a particular human group are determined, clarified & effectivated.
History Production in ancient time was an Individual activity Management was evolved with the evolution of the society In medieval period, management was simple & dictatorial In there was a rapid technological development 19 th & 20 th century is characterized by mass production
There is a divorce between ownership & management Emphasis has been shifted from production to marketing Management produces today what the society will consume tomorrow Todays management decision involves heavy financing and better infrastructure We have today not socialism, communism, or capitalism, but managerialsm everywhere
13 th Century: Walter Hanley : England –He left some important notes on farm management for his son. 19 th Century: Charles Babbage : Cambridge professor –He suggested Business decision should be based on accurate data after investigation –He felt that method of science & mathematics should be applied to the operation of factories
1800 to 1829 : Robert owen : England –He managed a group of textile mills –He said that proper attention should be paid to the employees Henry Towne : America –He was the president of a famous lock manufacturing company –He presented a paper entitled The Engineer as an Economist
1856 to 1915: Frederick Winslow Taylor : America –He is called father of scientific management –His concept of management was first published in a paper A piece Rate System in 1895, then in the form of book Shop Management in 1903, further in the book The Principles of Scientific Management
–His main Ideas were: He said work must be planned in advance Best man for the particular job must be selected Standard time for the performance of a job must be fixed He recommended Motion Study He recommended functional type of organization He believed that human element should not be ignored in spite of introducing scientific management
1841 to 1925 : Henri Fayol : France –He is considered father of Modern management –His famous book General and Industrial Administration was published in French in –He said that there are five main functions of management: Prevoyance Organization Co-ordination Command Control
1868 to 1933: Marry Parker Follet: Boston –She was a philosopher and a social worker. –For 30 years she actively worked against the evils resulting from growing industrialization in the city of Boston –She emphasized the human side of management Elton Mayo –Father of Human resource school –He introduced Hawthrone Experiments –Workers form Informal group
1877 to 1952: Henry Dennison –He was president of medium size family business –He studied organization and developed concept of motivation, leadership & teamwork Chester Banard –President of Bell Telephone com. & proffessor at harward School of Business Administration –His presentation about communication, informal organization & leadership has attracted great deal of attraction
Col. Urwick –He was the first director of International institute of Management. Geneva. –He published book The Elements of Administration in 1938 Oliver Sheldon –Is known for his The Philosophy of Management published in –He has presented his principles of Management –He stressed management is developing as a profession
Process of management Process consisting of different functions. Henry fayol was the 1 st among those who described mgt. as distinct process. Goal setting : Prime Importance. Planning : what to do? When to do ? Etc. Organizing : Divide work into activities,Define responsibilities & Delegate authorities.
Directing / actuating: moving the subordinates to action. Training & development. Control : follow up, 3 steps : setting standards, comparing actual & taking corrective steps. Planning functions : Top level. Controlling & supervision : Lower level. Eg : Bicycle Manufacturing.
Is management an art or a science Management as an Art : –Skillful application of theoretical knowledge –Creativity –Art Develops with practice.
Management as a Science : –Cause – effect relationship –Organized knowledge –Employed mathematics in their quest of knowledge –Universal application –Laws are formulated on the basis of systematic methods –Accumulates knowledge