The previous chapter describes the dramatic political changes that followed the American and French Revolutions. Equally profound were the social and economic changes that accompanied what has sometimes been called the Industrial Revolution. Beginning in Great Britain about 1750, the processes of manufacturing were transformed. Britain held the lead in industrialization, but eventually the following changes reached Western Europe, the United States, Russia, and Japan. New sources of energy. The coal-fired steam engine replaced traditional sources of power such as wood, wind, and water. Nations with abundant coalBritain, Germany, the United Statescould benefit from the new technology. Railroad and steamships, fired by the steam engine, created important links between raw materials, industry, and market. New labor-saving technologies. Phases in textile production once done by hand, such as spinning and weaving, were mechanized. Factories replaced cottage industry and became more efficient through the use of interchangeable parts and the assembly line. Increased standard of living. The factory system was tremendously productive. Efficiencies of scale and improved transportation links meant cheaper consumer goods for everyone. The accumulation of great wealth provided the capital for further industrialization. New patterns of work. The factory system transformed rural laborers into industrial workers with rigid timetables and strict discipline. Workers faced long hours of tedious and often dangerous work. New social patterns. Industrialization separated work from home life and created separate spheres for men and women. Women, especially middle-class women, were expected to take care of home and children. Men were expected to work and provide for the family. Urbanization. Industrial centers grew rapidly through the nineteenth century. Large cities struggled to provide such services as water delivery, sewage disposal, police and fire protection, education.
Andrew Marrs History of the World Episode 7– Industrial World 0:00 – 8:42
How did we get to the Industrial Revolution? Scientific Revolution (1500s-1800s) The Enlightenment (1650s-1750s)Agricultural Revolution (1690s-1800s) Inventors used science to produce more food. New machines (and crops) produced more food. Led to a population explosion and more workers and consumers. Atlantic Revolutions (1770s-1830s) Social Revolutions (1700s-1900s) Abolition Womens Rights Industrial Revolution (1760s-1840s) Inventors used science to produce new machines that produced more goods. Led to a population explosion and more workers and consumers.
Overview: The Industrial Revolution Energy: coal and steam replace wind, water, human and animal labor Organization: factories over cottage industries Rural agriculture declines, urban manufacturing increases Transportation: trains, automobiles replace animals, watercraft Led to New Classes The Industrial Middle Class Urban Proletariat Shift in political power Inspiration for new political systems, esp. Marxism Unexpected Costs of the Industrial Revolution Genesis of an environmental catastrophe Intellectual origins of human domination over natural resources Unforeseen toxins, occupational hazards Social ills Landless proletariat Migrating work forces
Genesis of the Industrial Revolution Great Britain, 1780s Followed agricultural revolution Food surplus Disposable income Population increase Market Labor supply British Advantages Strong banking tradition Natural resources Coal, iron ore Ease of transportation Size of country River and canal system Exports to imperial colonies Esp. machine textiles
The Early Industrial Revolution Before the Industrial revolution, clothes were made at home. Before long inventors were making bigger and better machines that improved productivity. Over time, people like me started paying workers to produce different things in their homes. This was known as putting-out, or the cottage industry.
Mankind: The Story of Us All Episode 10 – Richard Arkwright 4:28 – 9:50
Cotton-producing Technology Flying shuttle doubled weaving output without doubling supply of yarn Spinning jenny (1768) Increased supply of yarn, faster than flying shuttle could process Power loom (1787) met supply of yarn These machines are too big to fit in houses!
The Growth of Factories Massive machinery Supply of labor Transport of raw materials, finished product to markets Concentration in newly built factory towns on rivers Put the machines and people into one huge house. Ill call it a factory!
Poor working conditions Dramatic shift from rural work rhythms Six days a week, fourteen hours a day Immediate supervision, punishments Luddite Protest against machines Name from legend about boy named Ludlam who broke a knitting frame Leader called King Lud Masked Luddites destroy machinery, enjoyed popular support 14 Luddites hung in 1813, movement dies out
New Sources of Power Steam Engine James Watt ( ) Coal fired Applied to rotary engine, multiple applications 1760: 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton imported 1787: 22 million 1840: 360 million Heres the issue. Factories make so much money that it leads to increased demand for cotton. While the British abolished slavery, they purchased more and more cotton from the American South. The irony is that it just makes too much profit!
Iron Industry Henry Cort devises method of refining iron ore (1780s) First major advance since middle ages 1852 produces more high-quality iron than rest of world combined Synergy with increasing technological development
Rail Transport 1804 first steam-powered locomotive Capacity: Ten tons mph The Rocket from Liverpool to Manchester (1830), 16 mph Ripple effect on industrialization Engineering and architecture
Mankind: The Story of Us All Episode 10 – Railroads 9:50 – 16:40
Industrial Europe ca Industrialization Spreads Development of technical schools for engineers, architects, etc. Government support for large public works projects (canals, rail system) Spreads throughout Germany under Bismarck Everyone wanted to get rich! Countries around Europe start copying the Industrial Revolution. In the late 1800s, the Russian and Japanese governments would also get in on the action. Both countries Imperial governments actively started encouraging industrialization.
Mass Production Eli Whitney (U.S., ) invents cotton gin (1793), also technique of using machine tools to make interchangeable parts for firearms the American system Applied to wide variety of machines Henry Ford, 1913, develops assembly line approach Complete automobile chassis every 93 minutes Previously: 728 minutes
Industrialization in the United States 1800 US agrarian Population 5 million No city larger than 100,000 6/7 Americans farmers 1860 US industrializing Population 30 million Nine cities 100K + ½ Americans farmers Urbanization and Sanitation London: 1 million in 1800, 2.4 million in 1850 Wealthy classes move out to suburbs Industrial slum areas develop in city centers Open gutters as sewage systems Danger of Cholera First sewage systems, piped water only in 1848
Mankind: The Story of Us All Episode 10 – Cholera 16:40 – 28:30
New Social Classes Economic factors result in decline of slavery Capitalist wealth brings new status to non- aristocratic families New urban classes of professionals Blue-collar factory workers Urban environment also creates new types of diversions Sporting events Political power shifts from landowning aristocrats, to a new urban class of businessmen. A new Middle Class also emerges, with more men being involved in politics and society.
Women and Children in the Workforce Women Agricultural, cottage industry work involved women: natural transition But development of men as prime breadwinners, women in private sphere, working cheap labor Double burden: women expected to maintain home as well as work in industry Related to child labor: lack of day care facilities Children Easily exploited Low wages: 1/6 to 1/3 of adult male wages High discipline Advantages of size Coal tunnels Gathering loose cotton under machinery Cotton industry, 1838: children 29% of workforce Factory Act of 1833: 9 years minimum working age
The Socialist Challenge Socialism first used in context of Utopian Socialists Charles Fourier ( ) and Robert Owen ( ) Opposed competition of market system Attempted to create small model communities Inspirational for larger social units Unbelievable wealth gets created. Unfortunately, the new system rewards the people at the top more than the people at the bottom. This will result in movements that try to make society fairer to all. Charles Fourier Robert Owen
Karl Marx ( ) and Friedrich Engels ( ) Two major classes: Capitalists, who control means of production Proletariat, wageworkers who sell labor Exploitative nature of capitalist system Religion: opiate of the masses Argued for an overthrow of capitalists in favor of a dictatorship of the proletariat
Monopolies, Trusts, and Cartels Large corporations form blocs to drive out competition, keep prices high John D. Rockefeller controls almost all oil drilling, processing, refining, marketing in U.S. German IG Farben controls 90% of chemical production Governments often slow to control monopolies Unfortunately it takes a lot of money to run a business. Factories are expensive. Over time the corporation is started in France and England with shareholders that have limited liabilities.
The Fruits of Industrialization Technological innovation Improved agricultural tools Cheap manufactured goods Especially textiles Travel and transportation By now you are probably thinking, Whoah, this Industrial Revolution sucks. The rich are getting richer, the poorer are living miserable lives in polluted slums. But, it was not all bad. Consider the following. Population growth
The Demographic Transition Industrialization results in marked decline of both fertility and mortality Costs of living increase in industrial societies Urbanization proceeds dramatically 1800: only 20% of Britons live in towns with population over 10, : 75% of Britons live in urban environments Contraception Ancient and medieval methods: Egypt: crocodile dung depository Asia: oral contraceptives (mercury, arsenic) Elsewhere: beeswax, oil paper diaphragms Thomas Malthus ( ) predicts overpopulation crisis, advocates moral restraint Condoms invented in England Made from animal intestines in 17 th century, latex in 19 th century
Transcontinental Migrations 19 th -early 20 th centuries, rapid population growth drives Europeans to Americas 50 million cross Atlantic Britons to avoid urban slums, Irish to avoid potato famines of 1840s, Jews to abandon Tsarist persecution United States favored destination
Social Reform and Trade Unions Socialism had major impact on 19 th century reformers Reduced property requirements for male suffrage Addressed issues of medical insurance, unemploymnet compensation, retirement benefits Trade unions form for collective bargaining Strikes to address workers concerns
Global ramifications Global division of labor Rural societies that produce raw materials Urban societies that produce manufactured goods Uneven economic development Developing export dependencies of Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, south and south-east Asia Low wages, small domestic markets