Introduction Like all other animals fish also suffer from various diseases and effects of pollutants In case of pollution death is rapid and fish of all sizes are effected In case of disease, one individual or a group of individuals or in extreme case entire population is affected Fish may die within few days, or several weeks or months Diseases are more common and dangerous among fishes living in confined spaces as compared to wild
Signs of Fish Diseases Fish become sluggish Dont take food Rub its body with dikes or any other hard object in water Increase in breathing frequency Discoloration of body Rapid secretion of grey colored slime on the body Appearance of brown, black or white spots on the body Fin cuts and eaten out Whirling or tumbling movements
Abdominal swelling Fish may stop eating. Cuts and wounds on fish body Eyes move inward Gills colour changed Thick mucus on body surface
Prophylactic Measures Water supply of good quality Proper aerated water Free of Pathogens Avoid excessive growth of plants Annual drying out of ponds Disease free stocking Proper stocking ratio (Avoid over crowding) In case of out break dead or infected fish must be destroyed Excessive netting and handling must be avoided Ponds must be disinfected with lime Killing of unnecessary fish with piscicide Disinfection of utensils and nets
Kinds of Fish Diseases Viral Diseases: e.g. Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Fungal Diseases: e.g. Saprolegniasis, Branchiomycosis Bacterial Diseases: e.g. Abdominal Dropsy, Fin rot, Bacterial Gill Disease Protozoan Diseases: e.g. Costiasis, Whirling Disease Worm Diseases: e.g. Dactylogyrus,Leeches Crustaceans Diseases :e.g.Lernaeasis, Argulosis Nutritional Diseases :e.g. Vitamins deficiency, Protein deficiency Environmental Diseases: e.g. Anoxia, pH change, excess ammonia
Viral Hemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS) Because of RNA Genome Virus Changes in metabolic and biochemical Profiles Damage to Kidney and liver Sign of Disease Abnormal Movements Swollen Eyes Swollen Belly Red Intestine Pale Gills Swollen Kidneys Control Measures No effective treatment Infected fish must be removed and buried Clean ponds and avoid overstocking
Saprolegniasis Because of fungus Saprolegnia It attack skin, fins, head, mouth and gills Reasons Injuries on skin body because of netting Attack of parasites Weakened fish, Fungus spores are present in water and attack fish in favorable conditions Sign of Disease Gray white or light brown wooly blotches on fins Thread like tufts of cotton wool on skin Fungus on gills Fish rub its body with hard surface Control Measures KMnO 4 bath 1g/100lit water for minutes Malachite Green bath10gm/lit for 15 minutes Disinfection of pond with lime
Abdominal Dropsy Bacterium Aeromonous punctata Attack in spring season Sign of Disease Swelling Belly Pinkish or yellowish liquid in body cavity Intestine, Kidneys and liver infected In Ulcerative form ulceration of skin with blood spots Frequent jumping of fish
Control Measures Use of antibiotics e.g. Oxytetracycline either in feed or 1mg/100gm body weight Bath in KMnO 4 5ppm for 2 minutes Dead fish should be removed and buried
Fin Rot Because of bacterium Aeromonas and Pseudomonas Fish become sluggish and fins become black Cuts and wounds appear on fins Only fin base left Control Measures CuSO 4 Bath 50mg/lit for one minute Apply Mercuric Chloride on fins
Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) Because of Fungus Aphanomyces First considered to be caused by Virus Some scientists consider it to be because of Bacterium Aeromonas invadance Discovered in Pakistan in 1996 Most dangerous can cause high mortality Attack is likely in winters and in oxygen deficiency
Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) Sign of Diseases Red spots on skin Restrict feeding Scales become detach Fish become sluggish and swim on surface with head out of water Control Measures Avoid unnecessary Netting Disinfection of ponds and utensils and nets Avoid overstocking KMnO 4 bath 5ppm Bleaching Powder bath 1ppm or5-10Kg/hector in pond Oxytetracyclin in 60mg/Kg 1% common Salt bath for one hour
Costiasis Caused by flagellate Costia necatrix When there is excessive cow dung Scarcity of food and pH acidic Sign of Disease Slimy Secretion on skin, fins and gills Red patches on skin Gills become brownish Control Measures Bath in 40ml Formaline in 100liters water for 15 minutes Bath in 10gm NaCl in 100liters for 20 minutes
Lernaeasis Lernaea is a genus of copepod crustaceans commonly called anchor worms, parasitic on freshwater fishes. Diagnosis: Symptoms of anchor worm can be as follows: Anchor worms (Lernaea) can be seen with the naked eye Frequent rubbing or "flashing" Localised redness Inflammation on the body of the fish Tiny white-green or red worms in wounds Breathing difficulties General lethargy
Treatment There are several treatments for anchor worm in the aquarium/pond. Potassium permanganate is usually considered the best treatment and can be used either as a tank treatment or a "dip". Other treatments include a salt dip, a formalin dip, and modern antiparasitics may help. Salt in the aquarium at 1 to 2 table spoons may help prevent secondary infections. Manual removal of the parasite is one of the surest ways to get rid of it; this can be done by holding the fish in the hand and removing the parasites, being careful not to break the tail off leaving the head embedded and dipping the fish back into water every few seconds so it can breathe.
Argulosis Argulus is a crustacean parasite of fish. Attaches to the skin of the fish at the base of the fins by hooks and suckers. Anemia may result because of wounds, leading to death. Argulus discharge toxic substance from the poison gland, which is a very harmful for the host. Control measures: Fish should be dipped in the Lysol 1ml/5lit of water for 5-10 sec. KMnO4 bath 1g in 1lit of water for 40 sec.