To enhance students knowledge in understanding aquaculture, advanced aquaculture production systems and engineering that will enable them to design, construct, operate and maintain aquaculture facilities.
By the end of the course, students should be able to: 1. Apply the principles of appropriate site selection for the enhanced sustainability of aquaculture. 2. Identify design, operational and management principles, and key systems essential for effective aquaculture production. 3. Conduct detailed process description and performance testing of different aquaculture systems/facilities in use worldwide. 4. Evaluate the requirements for the various aquaculture systems/facilities with construction experts.
General types of aquaculture Definitions of aquaculture– biological, economic, legal Aquaculture benefits and constraints History of aquaculture globally, and in Pakistan Global and regional aquaculture production Future outlook for the region Production and trade in aquaculture
Common Definitions Aquaculture the farming of aquatic organisms (plants or animals) Fish culture (farming) culture of aquatic animals (fish) Seafood animal and plant products from freshwater or seawater environments Finfish fishes Shellfish aquatic invertebrates with a shell (molluscs, crustaceans, sea urchins, etc.)
Aquaculture is mans attempt, through inputs of labour and energy, to improve the yield of useful aquatic organisms by deliberate manipulation of their rates of growth, mortality and reproduction (Reay 1979).
Russell equation for production of biomass from a fish population: Biomass = recruitment + growth - mortality – harvest Through investment in an aquaculture system (tanks, ponds, enclosures, etc) and in appropriate husbandry, the aquaculturist attempts to maximise recruitment and growth, and minimise mortality. By contrast, fisheries management is usually an attempt to control only harvest.
A biological definition says nothing about the flow of benefits from investment in an aquaculture system Reay (1979) gives an economists definition: Aquaculture is production of aquatic organisms from the basis of site leasehold or stock ownership.
Legal definitions of aquaculture are also necessary, because the scope of laws applying to aquaculture need to be set out. Wilson (1982) in Canada came up with this legal definition: Aquaculture is culture or husbandry of aquatic flora and fauna, but does not include the raising or breeding of flora or fauna (a) as aquarium specimens, (b) in laboratory experiments, or (c) by individuals on their own property as food for their own use.
Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some sort of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated. For statistical purposes, aquatic organisms which are harvested by an individual or corporate body which has owned them throughout their rearing period contribute to aquaculture while organisms which are exploitable by the public as a common property resource, with or without appropriate licences, are the harvest of fisheries. (FAO, 1999a).
Production of protein rich, nutritive, palatable and easily digestible human food benefiting the whole society through plentiful food supplies at low or reasonable cost. Providing new species and strengthening stocks of existing fish in natural and man-made water-bodies through artificial recruitment and transplantation. Production of sportfish and support to recreational fishing. Production of bait-fish for commercial and sport fishery. Production of ornamental fish for aesthetic appeal. Recycling of organic waste of human and livestock origin.
Land and aquatic resource utilization Providing means of sustenance and earning livelihood and monetary profit through commercial and industrial aquaculture. Production of industrial fish.
Despite the fact that fish culture is an age-old practice in some regions of the world, it is relatively new as a significant industry in most countries. Extensive: Adoption of traditional techniques of aquaculture e.g. dependence on natural productivity and little control over the stocks.
Intensive: Adoption of full complement of culture techniques including scientific pond design, fertilization, supplemental feeding or only feeding without fertilization; full measure of stock manipulation, disease control, scientific harvesting, high level inputs and high rate of production. Semi-intensive: Adoption of mid-level technology, partial dependence on natural productivity, fertilization, supplementary feeding, with stock manipulation, medium level inputs and medium rate of production.
What is the difference between? Aquaculture production and Fisheries production (or Capture fisheries) Aquaculture production implies: Human intervention to enhance captive stock Individual/Cooperative ownership of stock Fisheries production implies: Human intervention to manage and maintain fished stocks at natural production levels Public ownership of stock
Hunting-gathering activity Variable recruitment and unpredictable stock size Uncertain sustainable level of exploitation Difficult to regulate so as to maintain stock sizes Relatively low productivity Many of worlds major capture fisheries range from heavily exploited to heavily overexploited
Mean yearly productivity increase in decade of 1990s less than 1% for capture fisheries compared to 10% for aquaculture In China, aquaculture production volume has already surpassed capture fisheries production There is current trend to use aquaculture production for stock enhancement of wild populations, providing link between aquaculture and fisheries (although similar links have existed before)
World aquaculture has grown Mill. tonnes last 53 years Growth rate is 11% /year China contributes 69.6% (43.5 mill. T) Asia-Pacific region 21.9 % Western European region contributed 3.5% Central and Eastern Europe region contributed 0.4% East, North Africa 0.9% Sub-Saharan Africa 0.2 % Top five producers (China, India, Vietnam, Indonesia and Bangladesh-80%). FAO ( )
Aquaculture developed thousands of years later in China, about 3500 BC. Common carp may have been first fish species cultured. First aquaculture text written in China about 500 BC (Fan Lei). Oysters were farmed in Japan about 2,000 BC. Aquaculture in Africa, Americas and Australia started only within the last several hundred years. Reason for late development of aquaculture compared to terrestrial agriculture: interactions between environment and aquatic organisms are not as well understood as those between environment and terrestrial organisms.
Fishes (freshwater and marine species) Mollusks (bivalve and gastropod) Crustaceans (decapods) Algae (macro- and micro-algae) Cyprinid fishes (carps) and macro-algae dominate world aquaculture production, but many other species are also target of aquaculture - in China, some 110 species of aquatic animals and plants are cultured
Domesticated species (breeding based on genetically selected broodstock): Major carps Chinese carps Common carp Atlantic salmon Rainbow trout Tilapia Channel catfish Wild species All others
Mollusks - bivalve Table oysters (primarily Pacific oyster; also European flat oyster) Table mussels (marine) Scallops Cockles (e.g., Blood Ark) and clams (e.g., Northern quahog) Pearl oysters and pearl (freshwater) mussels
Marine shrimps (12 species of family Penaeidea) Black tiger shrimp (Asia and Australia) Pacific white shrimp (Americas) Freshwater crustaceans Mitten crabs (China) Freshwater crayfish (crawfish) - 12 species Freshwater prawns - several species but primarily Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Giant Malaysian prawn)
Macro-algae (seaweeds - cultured for hundreds of years) Brown seaweeds (Phaeophyta; e.g., Japanese kelp) Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) Green seaweeds (Chlorophyta) Micro-algae (diverse taxonomy - cultured for last 2-3 decades) Sources of high-value, fine chemicals (carotenoid, fatty acids) Wastewater treatment Soil conditioners for agriculture Biofuel production
Uptil late sixties WPFD was limited to conservation and management of natural resources Traditional conservational methods without any development programme Not a single carp hatchery in West Pak Main hurdle to aquaculture was non-availability of fish seed The seed was collected from natural spawning grounds Collection of seed was expensive Establishment of carp hatchery was a dire need In first time seventeen pairs of Rohu and Mori were succeeded in breeding using pituitary hormones
Revolutionary Success in the history of Fisheries & Aq. In Pak. Real take off was in early eighties million fish seed was produced First Pakistan Aquaculture Development Project assisted by ADB was initiated in Advanced infrastructure training sub centers were developed and was considered success story in Punjab ADB also approved 2 nd development project and revolutionized Pakistan aquaculture. Private sector also take momentum and at present about 6628 fish farms covering an area of 11400hec. More than 80 FH besides 46 warm water and 17 Trout.
Indian Major Carps Chinese Carps Tilapia Cold Water (Trout) Cat Fishes Shell Fish (Freshwater Prawn, Marine Shrimps)
II. Production of Aquaculture Figure 1: Various Types of Aquaculture Production by Continent The above figure indicates that Asia has a clear edge over the other continents in aquaculture production. 31
32 II. Production of Aquaculture contd….. Table 1: Value of Aquaculture production by continent Figure 2: Aquaculture Production by continent Asia Africa Europe Americas Oceania The above table and graph indicate how aquaculture production has remained predominantly an Asian output. Besides China, many other developing Asian countries also produce substantial amount of aquatic resources and earn foreign currencies by exporting them.
Table 2: List of Top 10 Aquaculture Producing Countries (in MT) Country China India Vietnam Indonesia Thailand Bangladesh Norway Chile Japan Philippines World Total Source: FAO
Figure 4: Exports of Aquatic products by Different Continents Europe and Asia dominate export of aquaculture 34
35 III. Trade in Aquaculture contd… Europe imports highest amount of aquatic products. Figure 5: Imports of Aquatic products by Different Continents
36 III. Trade in Aquaculture contd… Figure 6: Exports of Aquaculture Products by Selected Countries China exports highest amount of aquatic products followed by Thailand, Indonesia and India.