Мы предполагаем, что вам понравилась эта презентация. Чтобы скачать ее, порекомендуйте, пожалуйста, эту презентацию своим друзьям в любой соц. сети. Кнопочки находятся чуть ниже. Спасибо.
Идет загрузка презентации. Пожалуйста, подождите
Презентация была опубликована
Species and Speciation
Biological Species Concept A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce viable, fertile offspring
Biological Species Concept Assumes –Common characteristics –Genetically compatible –Interbreed under natural conditions –Sexual Reproduction Iguana iguana
Drawbacks of Biological Species Concept Cannot be used with exclusively asexual organisms –Prokaryotes –Amoeba & some other protists –Some animals, plants & fungi Amoeba proteus
Drawbacks: Isolated Populations How do you test for interbreeding under natural conditions? Can a deer in Florida interbreed with one in Wisconsin?
Drawbacks Can a Great Dane interbreed with a Chihuahua?
Drawbacks Some species look and behave differently Can interbreed and have viable, fertile offspring Example: coyotes, wolves, dogs
Drawbacks: Horizontal Gene Transfer Vertical gene transfer Parents offspring Horizontal gene transfer Individual individual Not parent-offspring
Horizontal Gene Transfer Can occur between organisms: –Different species –Different kingdoms –Different domains
Horizontal Gene Transfer in Bacteria (1) Transformation
Horizontal Gene Transfer in Bacteria (2) Transduction
Horizontal Gene Transfer in Bacteria (3) Conjugation
Horizontal Gene Transfer E. coli 0157:H7 has picked up Shiga toxin gene from Shigella Up to 25% genetic difference among E. coli strains
Horizontal Gene Transfer Normally, 25% genetic diversity different species Human and chimp genomes differ by only 1.2%
Drawbacks: Fossil Species Cannot tell if fossil organisms were capable of interbreeding
Fossils Normally cant compare genes of different fossil species
Morphological Species Concept Group of individuals that share common characteristics Used for: Fossils Exclusively asexual Traditional method for sexual organisms
Biological Species Concept: Reproductive Isolation Barriers between species Prevent viable fertile offspring (Lesser Bird of Paradise)
Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms Prezygotic mechanisms –Before fertilization Postzygotic mechanisms –After fertilization
Prezygotic Mechanisms Prevents: –Prevent mating from occurring –Prevents gametes from forming a zygote
Prezygotic Mechanisms: Temporal Isolation Isolated by time May breed: –Different times of day –Different seasons –Different years
Temporal Isolation Late WinterLate Summer
Prezygotic Mechanisms: Habitat Isolation Same geographic area Different habitats
Prezygotic Mechanisms: Behavioral Isolation Different courtship rituals Blue-Footed Booby
Behavioral Isolation Eastern and Western Meadowlarks Isolated by Songs
Prezygotic Mechanisms: Mechanical Isolation Structural differences prevent mating Example: Genital openings (arrows) not aligned No Mating
Prezygotic Mechanisms: Gametic Isolation Sperm cannot fertilize eggs Very important in aquatic species (broadcast spawners) Example: Sea Urchins
Postzygotic Mechanisms Prevents hybrid zygotes from developing into viable, fertile adults
Postzygotic Mechanism: Reduced Hybrid Viability If Sheep and goats mate Hybrid zygotes Die before birth.
Postzygotic Mechanism: Reduced Hybrid Fertility Male donkey x Female horse Mule Mules: –Healthy (viable) –Sterile.
Postzygotic Mechanism: Hybrid Breakdown First generation hybrids are viable and fertile. Offspring of hybrids are feeble or sterile.
Speciation Process of species formation Two main mechanisms: –Allopatric speciation –Sympatric speciation
Allopatric Speciation Geographic separation Genetic exchange Populations become genetically different Reproductive isolation
Sympatric Speciation Populations not geographically separated Can be due to rapid genetic changes: –Alter morphology –Alter behavior –Alter habitat preferences
Example: Sympatric Speciation Euhadra snails Mutation in one gene Shell spirals in opposite direction Instant mechanical isolation Two species
Adaptive Radiation A common ancestor Many new species Relatively rapid Common in island chains –Isolated –Numerous habitats & resources
Galápagos Finches Ancestral finch from South America Several finch species –Different diets –Different beak shapes –Different beak sizes
Hawaiian Silverswords Tarweed arrived from North America ~ 5 mya Common ancestor Silverswords
Asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent.
Genetics Genetics (from Ancient Greek γενετικός genetikos, "genitive" and that from γένεσις genesis, "origin"), a discipline of biology, is the.
REPRODUCTION IN FISHES 1. Introduction Great diversity in reproduction patterns of fishes Many change gender Some mate for life while others are promiscuous.
DNA Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) Transplantation Clones Cloning is the moving of an organ from one body to another or from a donor site on the patients.
Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred in the reproduction of plants, thereby enabling fertilization and sexual reproduction. In spite.
Sexual selection. Sexual dimorphism is very common in nature.
What is it The greenhouse effect is the absorption of energy radiated from the Earth's surface by carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere, causing.
WILD KINGDOM (Bany Jene B. Hargett ) All woods are home to animals So we behaved like guests. We only looked and never touched, The birds and rabbits nests.
When coal and petroleum are burned, they release certain harmful gases into the air. These gases combine with the oxygen and water in the air. When the.
When you leave school you understand that the time of your independence life and the beginning of a far more serious examination of your abilities and.
Future How I see it In my presentation I will tell you about future, how I see it.
Animals and Plants Bubena A. FORM 8V. No one knows how many different species of wild plants and animals there are on our planet.
FAUNA Fauna of Africa Fauna of Africa, in its broader sense, is all the animals living on the African continent and its surrounding seas and islands. The.
Project was done by Lisichkina Tanya, Petrova Olga, Osipov Dima.
Paradise on the Earth. The Maldives. By Sheveleva Mariya 11-A form.
The passing on traits from parents to their offspring. The acquire of organism of new traits A characteristic of an organism that is determined genetically,
What to expect? How to prepare? What to do? How to win and find a good job? BUSINESS ENGLISH COURSE NOVA KAKHOVKA GUMNASUIM 2012.
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM. SOMEONE WHO WILL WIN: WE TRANSGENES OR THEY US? Выполнила студентка 2 курса Факультета биотехнологий и агрономии Никитина.
CONSTRAINTS 52. You do your CONSTRAINING in Sketcher mode to create your part to exacting dimensions. This is the opposite of free-form creating we have.
Business Statistics 1-1 Chapter Two Describing Data: Frequency Distributions and Graphic Presentation GOALS When you have completed this chapter, you will.
The main problem between generations. There are many problems between parents and their children. It can be differences between the views of the younger.
PAT312, Section 21, December 2006 S21-1 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation SECTION 21 GROUPS.
The category of mood. The category of mood is an explicit verbal category expressing the relation of the action denoted by the predicate to reality as.
Deforestation. In many parts of the world (for example, in the tropical forests of South America and Africa) deforestation occurs in high quantities.
the most popular pet in Russia
CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Complying : Gaitova M. Make sure: Ashirova Zh.
How can we measure distances in open space. Distances in open space.
LANGUAGE AND REASONING IN HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS Tatiana Chernigovskaya St. Petersburg State University Part IV.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The full name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The United.
The aims of our lesson are: to repeat the words and expressions on the topic Ecology to work out ecological rules Rules for people in the forest to repeat.
BREADTH FIRST TRAVERSAL Lesson Plan -3. Evocation.
I and society. Plan Aim I in society Friends Classmates Student-teacher Parents and children Brothers and sisters Society in human life Conclusion Source.
ADVANCED DRESS-UP FEATURES 39. Once OK has been selected, your part will appear with the filleted area highlighted by orange lines at the boundaries.
SPLAY TREE The basic idea of the splay tree is that every time a node is accessed, it is pushed to the root by a series of tree rotations. This series.
There are many young people in our country. Each of them has one's own view point on their life and their future.
Producing Electricity Мозговенко Ольга Петровна Учитель английского языка ЦО 1828 «Сабурово» Москва.
National parks N a t i o n a l p a r k s Made by 7a`s group (teacher Kvashnina L.I. )
CLONING DOLLY – the cloned sheep 0- Dolly (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003) was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal to be cloned from an adult.
MUSHROOM A mushroom (or toadstool) is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well.
Environmental protection. Many years ago people lived in harmony with the environment because industry was not much developed. Now the situation is quite.
Made by Yana Strilets and Yelizaveta Fedorko Form 11 Luganka secondary school Teacher : Liuta O.G. 2015 WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IT?
Globalization Globalization is a process influences of various factors of the international value (for example, close economic and political communications,
The natural world. Since ancient time Nature has served Man being the source of his life.
Studying Twins. Conjoined twins The Tocci twins, Giacomo and Giovanni. We sometimes say that two people are so close that they appear joined at the hip.
Some ideas of semantic analysis for anaphora resolution Dmitry P. Vetrov Dorodnicyn Computing Centre of RAS.
LANGUAGE AND REASONING IN HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS Tatiana Chernigovskaya St. Petersburg State University (Part II)
Adamova Sonya 8 b. We are given a chance to live in a beautiful and clean world, but mankind is destroying nature. Now we being are killing our planet!
Answer the questions: 1.What is climate? Climate is the weather a certain place has over a certain period of time. 2. Is the climate always the same in.
Patterns of Evolution. Macroevolution/Microevolution family large long Macroevolution- One genus or family evolves into another….due to large scale changes.
Geography of Australia The Shaping of a Continent Grade 7.
Environment problems. Pollution. Pollution in the WORLD Since ancient times Nature has served man, being the source of his life. For thousands of years.
oalas are small animals. They have small yellow eyes, a round black nose and big ears. Koalas eat only plants. Koalas are made for climbing. They can.
Presentation about pollution By Julia Yemchenko Irina Zhabko Irina Fedorova Kate Klipatska.
These plants have been modified in the laboratory to enhance desired traits such as improved nutritional content. For example, plant geneticists can isolate.
Ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms to each other and their surroundings. Ecology includes the study of plant and animal.
LETS THINK IT OVER AND TALK ABOUT THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF YOUNG PEOPLE. ARE YOUNG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES WORRIED ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MEMBERS.
LONDON ZOO Prepared by Tshelokova Arina 6 th form A, school 67.
In general Chinese are patient,punctual, generous and have great sense of humor. A handshake is the most common form of greeting with foreigners. Many.
I think that everything in I think that everything in the world must be beautiful. A human life is a part of the whole environment and closely connected.
Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. There are some about 5500 islands. The two.
A Trip To Mars. Mars Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is often described as the Red Planet. Mars has two moons, Phobos and.
Презентация к уроку (английский язык, 6 класс) по теме: Презентация "Парк дикой природы Уипснейд"
Correlation. In statistics, dependence refers to any statistical relationship between two random variables or two sets of data. Correlation refers to.
Unit 1 - Yellowstone - Our First National Park Geosc. 10 Yellowstone: the Premier Park. Yellowstone, the worlds first national park, may be the most famous.
How different the world is?. Plan 1.Beginning 1.Beginning 2. How tea was first drink in Britain? 2. How tea was first drink in Britain? 3. Some facts.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. BSCI v3.02-1 Configuring EIGRP Using EIGRP in an Enterprise Network.
Старосельский Александр 5 Б Llamas are friendly animals. They come from the Andes in South America and are good at walking in mountains. Trekking with.
Welcome to the San Francisco Zoo, Northern California's largest zoological park and conservation center. This urban oasis, nestled against the Pacific.
GM-foods Would you like to eat GM tomato?. It is terrible to imagine what do our sausages include and who did raise our vegetables. We live in a world,
The 11th form student Kudryavtseva Ann presents a project.
Fast Food Many years ago In the 'olden days', about when your dad's grandad were kids, there were no televisions, no video games, and not even many cars!
PAT312, Section64, December 2006 S64-1 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation SECTION 64 ENCLOSURES AND CONVEX SURFACES.
S12-1 NAS122, Section 12, August 2005 Copyright 2005 MSC.Software Corporation SECTION 12 RESIDUAL VECTOR METHOD.
London zoo London Zoo is the world's oldest scientific zoo. It was opened in London on 27 April 1828.
Globalization Выполнила: Ермолаева Диана Ученица 11 класса.
AVL-Trees COMP171 Fall 2005. AVL Trees / Slide 2 Balanced binary tree * The disadvantage of a binary search tree is that its height can be as large as.
Created by Vazheliuk Liza. The world environment means simply what is around us. Some people live in a town environment. But the air we breathe, the soil.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.26-1 Complex MPLS VPNs Introducing Central Services VPNs.
Family Relationships (Семейные Отношения). Family How could you describe the word family? First of all family means a close unit of parents and their.
English – speaking countries Quiz for the 8th form Teacher of English: Antyushina L.V.
Chap 11-1 Statistics for Business and Economics, 6e © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 Hypothesis Testing II Statistics for Business and Economics.
Environmental Protection. Naumova Victoriya 9 «А».
The presentation is prepared by Anton Shilov form 9 Educational complex Torskoe village Teacher Gordienko E.V.
Diffraction and Interference. Interference and Diffraction Distinguish Waves from Particles O The key to understanding why light behaves like waves is.
Air Pollution: The Dirty Truth ©2009 abcteach.comabcteach.com.
REFERENCE ELEMENTS 64. If your REFERENCE ELEMENTS toolbar is not in view and not hidden, you can retrieve it from the toolbars menu seen here. 65.
The Baikal: is it a lake or a sea? Chernova Anastasia the 7 form Irkutsk region t. Cheremkhovo Teacher: Myasnikova I. N.
Electromagnetism. Electromagnetism is the branch of science concerned with the forces that occur between electrically charged particles. In electromagnetic.
Location and climate of Australia. Australian Geography is very unique, not least because of the state that borders coincide exactly with the boundaries.
Formation of fossils and Geological time Scale. Formation of fossils Specific environmental conditions are necessary in order for fossils to form.
Project done by pupils of the 9 th form School 5 Consulted by teacher Eryomina Olga Olegovna Wed like to present you our project For healthy life. This.
General characteristics As any other part of speech, the noun can be characterized by three criteria: Semantic (the meaning) Morphological (the form and.
A S ANY LANGUAGE IN THE WORLD A SIGN LANGUAGE HAS MANY ADVANTAGES. F IRST OF ALL, IT IS QUITE RICH TO SHOW THE MOST IMPORTANT MEANINGS THAT EXIST IN ALL.
Wildlife of the Don Land!!!. Created: Koroleva Alina Lopatko Larisa Tutor: Solodilova V.N., the teacher of English.
Ideal Family Were prepared by Iryna Molokova and Ilona Synytsia.
WE MUST PROTECT OUR PLANET Зайцев Владимир Ученик 10 «В» класса.
New Zealand is one of the first countries to observe the New Year, on January 1. New Years Day and the Day after the New Year are public holidays throughout.
Еще похожие презентации в нашем архиве:
© 2017 MyShared Inc. All rights reserved.