Lecture#05 Mobile networks. Broadcasting networks The Bonch-Bruevich Saint-Petersburg State University of Telecommunications Series of lectures Telecommunication. - презентация
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Lecture#05 Mobile networks. Broadcasting networks The Bonch-Bruevich Saint-Petersburg State University of Telecommunications Series of lectures Telecommunication networks Instructor: Prof. Nikolay Sokolov,
Emergence of the cellular systems First systems of mobile telephone telecommunications have been used already in the twentieth years of the last century by security services. High efficiency of that method of exchange of information became obvious at once. Radio engineering development level in the first half of the XX century was not high enough for creation of cheap and compact terminals. Due to these reasons, massive development of the mobile telecommunications was not expected. By the end of the last century the situation has radically changed. Microelectronics development and scientific research in the field of the effective mobile telecommunications organization permitted to state principles of the construction of corresponding public network. At first this network was built on the base of analogous data transmission technique. Then the era of the digital technologies has come. But the basic principle of the mobile telecommunications system, use of the cellular topology of the access network, has remained the same.
Terminal equipment ITU-T Recommendation E.161: To assist blind and visually impaired people in identifying the dialling push-buttons and otherwise to facilitate dialling under low light conditions, it is recommended that the button with the "5" be marked with a tactile identifier so that the button can be identified by the sense of touch (GSM phone). Telephone for the NMT standard Telephone for the 4G standard
Cellular topology with three different frequency ranges
Cellular topology with seven different frequency ranges
Interfaces MSC – mobile switching center MS – mobile station BTS – base station BSC – base station controller EIR – equipment identification register SIM – subscriber identity module HLR – home location register VLR – visited location register
Numbering plan SN NDCSN NDC CC See ITU-T Recommendation E Local level - National level - International level
Supplementary services (1) SMS MMS, Modem GPRS EDGE HSPA. [ General Packet Radio Service (171 kbit/s), Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (474 kbit/s, High Speed Packet Access (up to 14.4 Mbit/s) ] Some examples of the modern services: РоС – Push-to-talk over Cellular, VHE – Virtual Home Environment, WAP – Wireless Application Protocol, etc.
Supplementary services (2) Growth of SMS – Worldwide (In Billion, 2000 – 2015F) YearSMS Traffic (In Billion)YearSMS Traffic (In Billion) , , , F8, F9, , F10, , F10, , F11,665.0 Source: Portio Research Ltd. F - Forecast
Prospects of the mobile telecommunications development (1) ETSI has been working on the new mobile telecommunications standards for a long time. Main directions of this work lie in the telecommunication quality increase, widening the spectrum of the supported services, providing data and video information exchange. Networks similar to GSM are related to the second generation of the mobile telecommunications systems – 2G. 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) group developed UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) ideology which defines set of the standards for the new generation of cellular networks. UMTS conception was created for the multimedia services support. 3G networks were launched by a number of the Operators worldwide.
Prospects of the mobile telecommunications development (2)
Prospects of the mobile telecommunications development (3) Some of the specialists think that the 4G (e.g. LTE Advanced) and 5G related direction is the most perspective. Corresponding networks allow bringing information interchange rate to 100 Mbit/s on the move and 1 Gbit/s for nomadic users. Pre-4G (e.g. WiMAX) and 4G networks have been already brought into commercial use in several countries. It is essential that 4G and 5G generations are oriented towards full IP next generation network which is very important from the maximal integration of the fixed and mobile communications point of view.
Prospects of the mobile telecommunications development (4) Long Term Evolution (LTE) has been set aggressive performance requirements that rely on physical layer technologies, such as, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, Smart Antennas to achieve these targets. The main objectives of LTE are to minimize the system and User Equipment complexities, allow flexible spectrum deployment in existing or new frequency spectrum and to enable co-existence with other 3GPP Radio Access Technologies. Source: TECHNICAL WHITE PAPER, Motorola
Prospects of the mobile telecommunications development (5) LTE performance requirements
Forecasts for Japan CategoryMillions of contracts People130 Cars100 Bicycles60 Mobile personal computers50 Cats and dogs20 Ships, motorcycles and etc10 Set top boxes90 Digital cameras30 Video cameras20 Refrigerators40 Other home appliances30 Overall580
Importance of the broadcasting Time of the information extraction: television – 43%, radio – 39%, Internet – 5%, books – 3%. Others – 10%. Source: One of the first Russian TV set (designed in 1949) Tube radio
Radio broadcasting system Invention of the radio has stimulated organization of the sound broadcasting system. Before wide distribution of the television, radio broadcasting was the only transmission facility for prompt information delivery to the big number of subscribers simultaneously. First radio broadcasting networks have proved high efficiency of the new type of telecommunications. Soon radio broadcasting networks became widely adopted in all developed countries. Important peculiarity of the radio broadcasting as opposed to telegraph and telephone communications systems is the utilization of the one- sided (simplex) channels for the information transmission.
Classification of the radio broadcasting systems
Channels for the radio broadcasting In Russia, three types of broadcasting channels are used: from 30 to Hz, from 50 to Hz, from 100 to 6000 Hz. For stereophonic broadcasting two channels (A and B) are used. In some broadcasting systems, there is reverse channel. This channel is used for the management and measurement of the QoS parameters.
Typical structure of the radio and television broadcasting networks
Digital television (1) Digital television (DTV) supports many different picture formats defined by the combination of size, aspect ratio (width to height ratio) and interlacing. The range of formats can be broadly divided into two categories: HDTV and SDTV. These terms by themselves are not very precise, and many subtle intermediate cases exist. The pixel is the smallest addressable screen element; it is the smallest unit of picture that can be controlled. Each pixel has its own address. The address of a pixel corresponds to its coordinates. Pixels are normally arranged in a two-dimensional grid, and are often represented using dots or squares. Each pixel is a sample of an original image; more samples typically provide more accurate representations of the original. The intensity of each pixel is variable. In color image systems, a color is typically represented by three or four component intensities such as red, green, and blue, or cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.
Digital television (2) Standard definition TV (SDTV), by comparison, may use one of several different formats taking the form of various aspect ratios depending on the technology used in the country of broadcast. For 4:3 aspect-ratio broadcasts, the 640 × 480 format is used in NTSC countries, while 720 × 576 format is used in PAL countries. High-definition television (HDTV), one of several different formats that can be transmitted over DTV, uses different formats, amongst which: 1280 × 720 pixels or 1920 × 1080 pixels. Each of these utilizes a 16:9 aspect ratio. HDTV cannot be transmitted over current analog channels.
Prospects of the radio and television broadcasting development Among variety of development trends of radio and television broadcasting systems, three important directions should be noted. The first direction is generated by the processes of integration and convergence in the infocommunication system. Consequence of this process is provision of sound and television broadcasting based on the NGN concept. Transfer to the IP broadcasting can be considered as the demonstration of this tendency. The second direction is related to interactivity support, which was absent in radio and television broadcasting systems. Interactivity allows a user to receive, in full measure, the needed services. Already utilized Video on Demand service can serve as an example of such capability. The third direction reflects tendencies to quality. Such tendencies are expressed in the growing sales share of the high-quality television and radio equipment for use in households and in cars. Also requirements to handheld terminals are rising. The same reasons have stimulated HDTV standard development.
Some important aspects of the TV (1) IPTV: additional income ~ 50% of all respondents, growth of the customers number ~ 30% of all respondents, growth of the broadband access market ~ 16% of all respondents, retention of the customers ~ 11% of all respondents. Source: K. Wieland. What role for IPTV. – Telecommunications International, September, 2006.
Some important aspects of the TV (2) Mobile TV: Types of the content: 24% – documentary, sport, and similar programs, 30% – serials, 46% – news. Place of viewing: 36% – at home, 23% – at work, 21% – in a bus, 7% – in a car, 3% – at bus station.