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Lecture#07 Evolution of the telecommunications The Bonch-Bruevich Saint-Petersburg State University of Telecommunications Series of lectures Telecommunication networks Instructor: Prof. Nikolay Sokolov,
Cycles in the telephone communication development Milestones of telephony development Time Emergence of the telephone communications 80s of the XIX century Automation of the telephone communications network 20s of the XX century Utilization of the program control 60s of the XX century Transition towards packet transmission and switching technologies Beginning of the XXI century The main goal is the real demands of each customer!
The Death of Distance *) *) F. Cairncross. The Death of Distance. – Harvard Business School Publishing, 1997.
Integration, convergence, and consolidation (1) Integration is aggregation or interpenetration. In some cases, integration is considered as creation of the relationships. Convergence is a process by which unrelated organisms independently acquire similar characteristics while evolving in separate ecosystems. In telecommunications (according to ITU-T Q.1761), coordinated evolution of formerly discrete networks towards uniformity in support of services and applications. It means convergence is approximately the same as integration. Consolidations is a reasonable combination of the integration and convergence.
Integration, convergence, and consolidation (2) Typical example of integration is ISDN (Integrated service digital network). One network supports the services that were previously provided by number of the existing networks. Typical example of convergence is the functions of the fixed and mobile networks. Mobile networks support the Internet access. Fixed networks provide the SMS transfer. Typical example of consolidations is utilization of the common cable lines for the transmission of the different information (voice, data, video).
Integration, convergence, and consolidation (3) ITU, Recommendation Q.1702, Converged services: The integration of Internet, multimedia, , presence, instant messaging, m-commerce, etc., services with voice service. Sometimes term convergence is used instead of word integration. Term integration was attractive during elaboration of the ISDN concept. Market of the ISDN mostly was not successful. For this reason, number of experts use term convergence.
Convergence and reliability homework: let A 1 =A 2. Please calculate value A for A 1 =0.99, 0.999, and
Definitions of term Network ITU-T, E.164 (2005): Internationally interconnected physical nodes and operational systems operated and maintained by one or more ROAs (Recognized Operating Agency) to provide public telecommunications services. Private networks are not included in this definition. ITU-T, G (2005): All equipment and facilities, including loop plant, located on the carrier side of the network interface. ITU-T, G.805 (2000): All of the entities (such as equipment, plant, facilities) which together provide communication services. ITU-T, Y.101 (2000): A set of nodes and links that provide connections between two or more defined points to facilitate telecommunication between them.
Global Information Infrastructure (1) Source: ITU-T, Recommendations Y.101 and Y.110 A collection of networks, end user equipment, information, and human resources which can be used to access valuable information, communicate with each other, work, learn, receive entertainment from it, at any time and from any place, with affordable cost on a global scale.
Global Information Infrastructure (2) Driving forces: 1. Two predominant factors distinguish a situation for the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) which is likely to be radically different from previous information infrastructures. These two factors are: -the convergence of technologies in use within telecommunications, computers, consumer electronics and the move of content provision industries towards digital technology; - the new business opportunities, created by the unbundling of services made possible or necessary by deregulation, and other commercial and/or open market pressures. 2. Digitalization (All forms of information, including voice, data or video/image, are simply reduced to streams of digital bits for transfer over a bit-way (or digital network). This represents a possible decoupling between networks and their payloads).
Global Information Infrastructure (3) Driving forces: 3. Value chain models and business opportunities. The following properties of an added-value chain are relevant to ITU-T standardization work: a)Every link and item in an added-value chain, from content to user or user to user, potentially represents a possible business opportunity. b)Every link in the chain establishes sufficient demarcation points to facilitate potential separate ownership and operation to be realized within the context of the entire chain. c)a) and b) are sources of requirements for the definition of standards-based functions and/or interfaces. This model can be used to represent a competitive telecommunications and information provision environment, involving the interconnection of networks in parallel or in series, as well as systems which enhance or modify information content.
Global Information Infrastructure (4) Source: ITU-T, Recommendation Y.110
Global Information Infrastructure (5) NTU – Network termination unit, CTI – Computer telephony integration, BS – Base station, STB – Set-top box.
VI&P Visual, Intelligent & Personal Telecommunication towards the 21st century – visual, intelligent, and personal communications (Shozo Iwasaki, 1992). Smart home – an intelligent home that would provide fully automated 21st century living, with multifunctional robots. Automation has successfully conquered industry and working environments. Leisure time, domestic tasks and household management have remained untouched.
Definition of the NGN (1) A Next Generation Network (NGN) is a packet-based network able to provide services including Telecommunication Services and able to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies. It offers unrestricted access by users to different service providers. It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to users.
Definition of the NGN (2) The NGN is characterized by the following fundamental aspects: Packet-based transfer; Separation of control functions among bearer capabilities, call/session, and application/ service; Decoupling of service provision from network, and provision of open interfaces; Support for a wide range of services, applications and mechanisms based on service building blocks (including real time/ streaming/ non-real time services and multi-media); Broadband capabilities with end-to-end QoS and transparency; Interworking with legacy networks via open interfaces; Generalized mobility; Unrestricted access by users to different service providers; A variety of identification schemes which can be resolved to IP addresses for the purposes of routing in IP networks; Unified service characteristics for the same service as perceived by the user; Converged services between Fixed/Mobile; Independence of service-related functions from underlying transport technologies; Compliant with all Regulatory requirements, for example concerning emergency communications and security/privacy, etc.
Costs ratio in NGN Type of Operators costsTodayChangeTomorrow Capital expenditure (CAPEX) 35%1,2543,75% Operational expense (OPEX) 65%0,532,5% Total costs100%–76,25% Important reason of the conversion to NGN is the ending of the exploited types of the telecommunications equipment life-cycle. New equipment, which meets the NGN requirements, shall reduce OPEX of the network due to integration processes.
Next generation network model CU – control unit, PS – packet switch, TS – telephone set, PC – personal computer
Architecture of the next generation network IP – Internet protocol, PSTN – Public switched telephone network, SS#7 – Common channel signalling system 7 (according to ITU classification), ISUP – Integrated services user part, RTP – Real-time transport protocol, PCM – Pulse code modulation.
Architecture of the PSTN and Softswitch switching stations API – Application programming interface
Integration of the existing telecommunications networks