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Lecture#9 Concluding session, part I The Bonch-Bruevich Saint-Petersburg State University of Telecommunications Series of lectures Telecommunication networks Instructor: Prof. Nikolay Sokolov,
Main definition Telecommunication. Any transmission, emission or reception of signs, signal, writing, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, visual or other electromagnetic systems. International Telecommunication Conference, Atlantic City, 1947.
Telecommunication system This model is proposed by ITU-T for the GII (Global Information Infrastructure). On the other hand, this model is useful for any telecommunication network.
Definitions of term Network ITU-T, E.164 (2005): Internationally interconnected physical nodes and operational systems operated and maintained by one or more ROAs (Recognized Operating Agency) to provide public telecommunications services. Private networks are not included in this definition. ITU-T, G (2005): All equipment and facilities, including loop plant, located on the carrier side of the network interface. ITU-T, G.805 (2000): All of the entities (such as equipment, plant, facilities) which together provide communication services. ITU-T, Y.101 (2000): A set of nodes and links that provide connections between two or more defined points to facilitate telecommunication between them.
International Telecommunication Union ITU is the leading United Nations agency for information and communication technologies. As the global focal point for governments and the private sector, ITU's role in helping the world communicate spans 3 core sectors: Radiocommunication, Telecommunication Standardization and Telecommunication Development. ITU also organizes TELECOM events and was the lead organizing agency of the World Summit on the Information Society. ITU is based in Geneva, Switzerland, and its membership includes 191 Member States and more than 700 Sector Members and Associates.
ETSI ETSI was created by CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations) in Based in Sophia Antipolis (France), ETSI is officially responsible for standardization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) within Europe. ETSI has 696 members from 62 countries/provinces inside and outside Europe, including manufacturers, network operators, administrations, service providers, research bodies and users in fact, all the key players in the ICT arena.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (1) Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (2) Telephone conversations
Telephone communications system "Telephone communications system" term is usually refers to base principles of telephone networks construction, operation and development. These principles usually include the following positions: purpose of the system; supported services; network structure; quality of service ratings; numbering plan; maintenance; equipment requirements; main directions of system development.
Internet (RFC 3935 ) The Internet: A large, heterogeneous collection of interconnected systems that can be used for communication of many different types between any interested parties connected to it. The term includes both the "core Internet" (ISP networks) and "edge Internet" (corporate and private networks, often connected via firewalls, NAT – network address translation – boxes, application layer gateways and similar devices). The Internet is a truly global network, reaching into just about every country in the world. The IETF community wants the Internet to succeed because we believe that the existence of the Internet, and its influence on economics, communication, and education, will help us to build a better human society.
Example of the Internet network structure AS – Internet autonomous system
Interconnection of two local networks R – router, LAN – Local Area Network
Internet in our life Research company Yougov carried out survey among broadband Internet users in Great Britain. The main goal was to define goods and services that citizens will be eager to sacrifice during economic depression. Approximately 3% of the respondents were ready to save money by limiting expenses on Internet access. About 30% of respondents (near 5 million) were ready to cut down expenses related to newspapers & magazines, alcohol, cigarettes but will use Internet. On the other hand, only 60% of respondents were going to use services from their Provider. Remainder will find Provider with inexpensive services.
Cellular topology with seven different frequency ranges
Interfaces MSC – mobile switching center MS – mobile station BTS – base station BSC – base station controller EIR – equipment identification register SIM – subscriber identity module HLR – home location register VLR – visited location register
Typical structure of the radio and television broadcasting networks
Classification of the television broadcasting systems
Cycles in the telephone communication development Milestones of telephony development Time Emergence of the telephone communications 80s of the XIX century Automation of the telephone communications network 20s of the XX century Utilization of the program control 60s of the XX century Transition towards packet transmission and switching technologies Beginning of the XXI century The main goal is the real demands of each customer!
The Death of Distance *) *) F. Cairncross. The Death of Distance. – Harvard Business School Publishing, 1997.
Integration, convergence, and consolidation (1) Integration is aggregation or interpenetration. In some cases, integration is considered as creation of the relationships. Convergence is a process by which unrelated organisms independently acquire similar characteristics while evolving in separate ecosystems. In telecommunications (according to ITU-T Q.1761), coordinated evolution of formerly discrete networks towards uniformity in support of services and applications. It means convergence is approximately the same as integration. Consolidations is a reasonable combination of the integration and convergence.
Integration, convergence, and consolidation (2) Typical example of integration is ISDN (Integrated service digital network). One network supports the services that were previously provided by number of the existing networks. Typical example of convergence is the functions of the fixed and mobile networks. Mobile networks support the Internet access. Fixed networks provide the SMS transfer. Typical example of consolidations is utilization of the common cable lines for the transmission of the different information (voice, data, video).
Integration, convergence, and consolidation (3) ITU, Recommendation Q.1702, Converged services: The integration of Internet, multimedia, , presence, instant messaging, m-commerce, etc., services with voice service. Sometimes term convergence is used instead of word integration. Term integration was attractive during elaboration of the ISDN concept. Market of the ISDN mostly was not successful. For this reason, number of experts use term convergence.
Global Information Infrastructure (1) Source: ITU-T, Recommendations Y.101 and Y.110 A collection of networks, end user equipment, information, and human resources which can be used to access valuable information, communicate with each other, work, learn, receive entertainment from it, at any time and from any place, with affordable cost on a global scale.
Global Information Infrastructure (2) Driving forces: 1. Two predominant factors distinguish a situation for the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) which is likely to be radically different from previous information infrastructures. These two factors are: -the convergence of technologies in use within telecommunications, computers, consumer electronics and the move of content provision industries towards digital technology; - new business opportunities, created by the unbundling of services made possible or necessary by deregulation, and other commercial and/or open market pressures. 2. Digitalization (All forms of information, including voice, data or video/image, are simply reduced to streams of digital bits for transfer over a bit-way (or digital network). This represents a possible decoupling between networks and their payloads).
Global Information Infrastructure (3) Driving forces: 3. Value chain models and business opportunities. The following properties of an added-value chain are relevant to ITU-T standardization work: a)Every link and item in an added-value chain, from content to user or user to user, potentially represents a possible business opportunity. b)Every link in the chain establishes sufficient demarcation points to facilitate potential separate ownership and operation to be realized within the context of the entire chain. c)a) and b) are sources of requirements for the definition of standards-based functions and/or interfaces. This model can be used to represent a competitive telecommunications and information provision environment, involving the interconnection of networks in parallel or in series, as well as systems which enhance or modify information content.
Definition of the NGN A Next Generation Network (NGN) is a packet-based network able to provide services including Telecommunication Services and able to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies. It offers unrestricted access by users to different service providers. It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to users.
Next generation network model CU – control unit, PS – packet switch, TS – telephone set, PC – personal computer
Integration of the existing telecommunications networks
Points of the technology change under transition to the NGN
Network structure. Some definitions Network structure Term is used to describe the method of how data on a network is organized and viewed. Network architecture Also referred to as the network model, the network architecture is the overall structure of how a network is laid out. The network architecture is commonly drawn out as a diagram for a visual representation of the overall network. A well designed network architecture helps prevent network bottlenecks and various other issues. Some authors use term topology instead of the word architecture because term architecture is widely applied in the publications concerning telecommunication protocols.
Cost-performance compromise If π is very small (e.g. 0.1%) cost of the network will be high. For this reason, cost of service will be supernormal. The number of the users will be small. If π is very high (e.g. 50%) cost of the network will be relatively small. On the other hand, quality of service will be poor. For this reason, the number of the users will be small as well. It is obvious there is cost-performance compromise. Therefore we have to define optimum value of the π. This task is the main one among problems of the network planning.