The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль, Moskovskiy Kreml), sometimes referred to as simply The Kremlin, is a historic fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). It is the best known of kremlins (Russian cita- dels) and includes four palaces, four cathedrals and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. The complex serves as the official residence of the President of Russia.RussianMoscowMoskva RiverSaint Basil's CathedralRed SquareAlexander GardenkremlinsRussiancita- delsKremlin WallKremlin towers PresidentRussia
The first recorded stone structures in the Kremlin were built at the behest of Ivan Kalita in the late 1320s and early 1330s, after Peter, Metropolitan of Rus was forced to move his seat from Kiev to Moscow. Dmitri Donskoi replaced the oaken walls with a strong citadel of white limestone in 1366– 1368 on the basic foundations of the current walls.
Grand Prince Ivan III organised the reconstruction of the Kremlin, inviting a number of skilled architects from Renaissance Italy, like Petrus Antonius Solarius, who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and Marcus Ruffus who designed the new palace for the prince. It was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, and the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and Muscovite Russia was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, built in 1505–08 and augmented to its present height in The Kremlin walls as they now appear were built between 1485 and 1495.
The name The Kremlin is often used as a metonym to refer to the government of the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and its highest members (such as general secretaries, premiers, presidents, ministers, and commissars), in the same way that the metonym Quai d'Orsay refers to the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs or White House refers to the Executive Office of the President of the United States. It is still used in reference to the government of the Russian Federation. "Kremlinology" referred to the study of Soviet and Russian policies.metonymgovernment of the Soviet Unionmetonym Quai d'OrsayFrench Ministry of Foreign AffairsWhite HouseExecutive Office of the President of the United Statesgovernment of the Russian FederationKremlinology