2 forms Russia 6 Functions 6 Forms Double Nature English 2 T HE I NFINITIVE Примеры: -Спрашивать - Быть спрошенным
T HE I NFINITIVE D EFINITION a non-finite form of the verb has a double nature: nominal and verbal the formal sign of the infinitive is the particle to 3
F UNCTIONS OF THE I NFINITIVE 1. A subject 2. A part of a predicative 3. A part of a compound verbal predicate 4. An object 5. An attribute 6. An adverbial modifier 4
F ORMS - T ENSE D ISTINCTIONS Tense Voice ActivePassive Simple (Indefinite) to writeto be written Continuousto be writing- Perfectto have written to have been written Perfect Continuous to have been writing - 5
S IMPLE (I NDEFINITE ) I NFINITIVE REFERS TO THE PRESENT OR FUTURE They want to invite him. I like to go there. Passive: They want to be invited there. He hopes to be offered a promotion. 6 Active:
C ONTINUOUS I NFINITIVE DESCRIBES AN ACTION HAPPENING NOW Active: They must be working now. 7
P ERFECT I NFINITIVE SHOWS THAT THE ACTION OF THE INFINITIVE HAPPENED BEFORE THE ACTION OF THE VERB with verbs: Seem, appear, believe, know, claim, expect Active: Steve seems to have gone to a lot of places. He claims to have met the Queen. Passive: John appears to have been offered a job. The book seems to have been translated. 8
P ERFECT C ONTINUOUS I NFINITIVE EMPHASES THE DURATION OF THE ACTION Active: He looks tired. He seems to have been working all morning. 9
I N PAIRS, ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS USING THE PROMPTS BELOW, AS AN EXAMPLE SA: Have they been sleeping? SB: No, they seem not to have been sleeping. 10
I N PAIRS, ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS USING THE PROMPTS BELOW 11 Are they running?
I N PAIRS, ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS USING THE PROMPTS BELOW 12 Has he lost his keys?
I N PAIRS, ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS USING THE PROMPTS BELOW 13 Are they building the house?
I N PAIRS, ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS USING THE PROMPTS BELOW 14 Has he hurt his knee?
I N PAIRS, ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS USING THE PROMPTS BELOW 15 Is he painting the picture?
T HE I NFINITIVE AS AN A TTRIBUTE 1 This is not the book to be found in any library. He has no desire to be appointed to this post. 2 The amount to be paid includes the cost of packing. 16
T HE I NFINITIVE AS AN A TTRIBUTE 3 The first The second The third The last He was the first to go away. to do 17
T HE I NFINITIVE AS AN A TTRIBUTE 4 after nouns, pronouns, some, any, no He brought me a book to read. Give me something to drink. Its a pleasure to work with you. 18
T HE I NFINITIVE AS A S UBJECT To smoke is bad for health. To do it is to help them. After adjectives cold, difficult, easy, simple, desirable, angry, happy, glad etc. It is important to tell them the truth. 19
T HE I NFINITIVE AS A S UBJECT With it + be + adjective (+ of + object) It was nice of him to remember my birthday. With only to express unsatisfactory result He called me only to say that he would be late. 20
T HE I NFINITIVE AS AN A DVERBIAL M ODIFIER After in order to, so as, so as not Ill write down the telephone number so as not to be late. enough, too, so+adj+as He is clever enough to do such things. Shes too tired to go out. As if, as though She waved her hands as if to say good bye. 21
A S A P REDICATIVE His great desire is to visit England. My first duty is to study well. The thing to do was to stay calm. 22
T HE F OR - TO -I NFINITIVE C ONSTRUCTION For me to go there is impossible. That was for you to find out. The teacher asked for the papers to be brought. The best thing for you to do is to forgive her. I stepped aside for the car to go by. She spoke loud for you to hear. 23
C OMPLEX S UBJECT It is said – говорят It is reported – сообщают It seems – кажется It is likely – вероятно It is said that they know Chinese well. They are said to know Chinese well. 24
C OMPLEX S UBJECT was heard was made He is expected to speak English was known is said 25
C OMPLEX O BJECT He is supposed to return tomorrow was to have returned to be working now to have been working here for many years 26
C OMPLEX O BJECT is used in Passive Voice with the verbs: To see, to hear, to order, to cause, to allow, to expect, to know, to suppose, to report, to announce, to believe, to consider, to regard The book was expected to have been published by the summer of
C OMPLEX O BJECT 1 seem, appear – казаться, по-видимому 2 prove, turn out, appear, happen – оказаться 3 happen – случаться, случайно The child seemed to be sleeping. The task proved (to be) very diffic ult. He happened to be here when I came. 28
C OMPLEX O BJECT He is likely (вероятно) is unlikely (маловероятно) to is sure (конечно) return is certain (несомненно, наверно) 29
C OMPLEX O BJECT want ask order Know, believe=suppose, expect, find consider, think, mean We suppose him to return home early. We find your research work (to be) very interesting. To do To be done 31
T HE I NFINITIVE AS P ARENTHESIS To begin with – начать с того… To cut a long story short – короче говоря To make a long story short – короче говоря To put it mildly – мягко выражаясь To tell the truth – по правде говоря To say nothing of – не говоря уже о To say the least of it – чтобы не сказать больше To speak quite frankly – откровенно говоря 32
M EMORIZE THE EXPRESSIONS : 1. He is hard to please. - Ему трудно угодить. 2. She is pleasant to look at. – У нее привлекательная внешность. 3. I have something to tell you. - Мне надо вам кое-что сказать. 4. There is nothing to be done. - Ничего не поделаешь. 5. The house is to let. – Дом сдается внаем. 6. Who is to blame? – Кто виноват? 7. There is nothing left to do but left. – Единственное, что остается – это ждать. 33
T HE U SE OF THE I NFINITIVE WITHOUT THE P ARTICLE TO 1. After auxiliary verbs ( shall, will, do etc) 2. After modal verbs (except ought) 3. After verbs denoting sense perception: to hear, to see, to feel, to know etc 4. After the verb to let 5. After the verb to make 6. After the expressions had better, would rather, would sooner, cannot but, nothing but 7. In sentences beginning with why 34