Tretyakov Gallery Abiyeva Marzhanai and Chernysheva Anna
The history Considered to be the founding date of the Tretyakov Gallery in That's when Pavel Tretyakov, a merchant by occupation, became the first two paintings of Russian artists "Temptation" N.G.Shildera and "Skirmish with Finnish Smugglers' V.G.Hudyakova. In the late 50's, he adds his collection of works II Sokolov and VI Jacobi, AK Savrasova and M.P.Klodta. At this time, Pavel Tretyakov had a dream to create a museum, which will feature works by Russian painters. His collection, he began to collect from scratch. The collector has acquired all that was best in the art market of the works of Russian artists. By nature Pavel Tretyakov was not just a collector. He had a broad knowledge of literature and the arts, theater and music. As he wrote about his artist and critic AN Benoit "... Tretyakov by nature and knowledge was a scientist." He correctly chose the best that created the Russian art. As the artist said about him Kramskoj: "This is a man with a kind, must be the devil's instinct." He was at the opening of exhibitions in Moscow and in St. Petersburg. Pattern is not hung in the halls, and he managed to see them in the shops and ask the price. He was ahead of all. There were times that even the king, coming up to you like a picture, I read that "Mr. Tretyakov purchased." He said: "We are working for the Russian people."
In his first will, in 1860, Tretyakov left 150,000 silver rubles in Moscow to create "art museum was or public art gallery...". He created the first museum in Russia, reflecting the development of Russian art and would like to become a public museum. Being rich, he tried not to pay intermediaries. And thought: "What will save more money, the more pictures you can collect works of art." Pavel Tretyakov avoided frills. He helped the needy artists, widows and orphans. Reinforced and expanded the museum In his first will, in 1860, Tretyakov left 150,000 silver rubles in Moscow to create "art museum was or public art gallery...". He created the first museum in Russia, reflecting the development of Russian art and would like to become a public museum. Being rich, he tried not to pay intermediaries. And thought: "What will save more money, the more pictures you can collect works of art." Pavel Tretyakov avoided frills. He helped the needy artists, widows and orphans. Reinforced and expanded the museum.
In 1867, he opened the gallery, which presented the collection of Paul and his brother Sergei. Visitors saw 1,276 paintings, 471 sculptures and 10 picture Russian artists, as well as 84 pictures of foreign masters. Paintings Pavel posted in his house in Lavrushinsky Lane. From 1872 to built two halls of the museum, which communicate with the living quarters. In 1882, when it was necessary to place a collection of Turkestan, were added 6 new rooms. Additional facilities also appeared in 1885 and was a landmark for the museum, this year, Pavel Tretyakov gave it as a gift to the city of Moscow. Then in 1287 the collection was paintings, 518 drawings and sculptures of Russian artists 9 XVIII-XIX centuries, as well as the work of Western European masters. A year later, the official opening of the Moscow City Gallery Pavel and Sergei Tretyakov. After the death of Pavel Tretyakov in 1898, his work was continued by other patrons.
In the years. under the supervision of A. Kalmikova Vasnetsov was built by the famous facade, which has become the emblem of the Tretyakov Gallery. The facades of the building were designed by the architect V. Bashirov the drawings of the artist V. Vasnetsov. April 2, 1913 he was elected a trustee of the museum artist and architect Igor Grabar Emmanuilovich. Thanks to him, the Tretyakov Gallery was established by the European type - in chronological order. In December 1913, the museum was opened to visitors. After the revolution in 1918, the museum was renamed the State Tretyakov Gallery and was declared state property of the Russian Federative Soviet Republic. Director was Grabar. A great contribution to the development of the museum, including the expansion and equipping, was made by Academician AV architecture Schusev. During the war, most of the exhibits were evacuated to Novosibirsk. The building itself is affected by the bombing. On the 100th anniversary of the museum in 1956, a collection of over 35,000 works of art. A large contribution to the expansion of the museum has also made a JK Korolev, the museum's director from 1980 to In 1989 was built a new engineering building, which housed a conference hall and a data processing center, children's studio and exhibition halls. After the reconstruction of the museum ensemble Tretyakov was included architectural monument of XVII century - the church of St. Nicholas in Tolmachev. It has been restored, sanctified and became a home church museum.
Tretyakov Gallery. Pictures. The museum has many rooms. And each masterpiece can be found. Pavel highly valued creativity V.G.Perova. In the 1860s, were purchased several of his paintings, including the "Rural procession on Easter" and "Three", as well as portraits. In the collection there are pictures that reflect the Russian history. As a lover of landscape paintings he orders, which would see the truth and poetry of life. Acquired and portraits by KP Briullo, VA Tropinina VG Perov. Created a portrait gallery of composers, Writers, artists, Russia - AN Ostrovsky and FM Dostoevsky, IS Turgenev and NA Nekrasov, VI Dahl and other famous artists.
Tretyakov supported formed at the time of the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions (TPHV). Many of the paintings were acquired at these shows. In 1870 Pavel Tretyakov acquired such famous paintings as "Christ in the Desert" IN Archaeology and "Pinery" II Shishkin, "The Rooks Have Arrived" AK Savrasova and "Peter I Interrogating the Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich" NN Gay. One of the most expensive acquisitions Tretyakov was the work of VV Vereshchagin - Turkestan collection of paintings and sketches. Later the collection updated with pictures of VI I.E Repin and Surikov, V. Vasnetsov and II Shishkin, IN Archaeology and other famous artists. In the Tretyakov Gallery, we see the work of Repin, Ivanov, and Kuindzhi Bryullova, Archaeology and many others. Connoisseurs rejoice and Vrubel. One of the most talked about exhibits is "Black Square" by Malevich.
"The Rooks Have Arrived" AK Savrasova "Black Square" by Malevich