ОСТРОВ СИТЕ) lie de la Cite ( ОСТРОВ СИТЕ) Paris appeared on the Ile de la Cité in the middle of the Seine. In the 3rd century BC Parisi tribe settled here. In '52 the Romans captured the settlement, and in the 5th century - Franks. The city, known as Lutetia, developed, became a crossroads of important trade routes. Gradually the name Lu disappeared from use, it was replaced by the name of "City of Parisi," which soon morphed into Paris. Over time, the city is outside the Cite island, people settled on the banks of the Seine, took him to the nearest hills. Now the buildings of the medieval Cité eastern preserved only Notre Dame.
Notre Dame de Paris ( СОБОР ПАРИЖСКОЙ БОГОМАТЕРИ) The first stone of the cathedral was laid in 1163 by King Louis VII and Pope Alexander III. Prior to that, on the site of the cathedral was a temple of the 1st century, and later - Christian basilica. Construction of the cathedral of Notre Dame was not until History has not preserved the name of the first architect of the cathedral. We only know that in the drafting of the Paris attended Bishop Maurice de Sully. Construction came to us in an incomplete form. Its two 70-meter towers were married spiers.
The Cathedral is a five-naval basilica (length 130 m, width of 105 m, the height of the arches of 35 m). From the entrance, a view of the high central nave, the choir and the altar. The cathedral is the largest organ in France (Master Clicquot, 18th century, 7800 tubes)
Stained "Roses (ВИТРАЖИ «РОЗЫ») Interior decorations of the 13th century in the cathedral of Notre Dame survived only stained glass "rose" - the round window (10 meters in diameter) of the south portal of the central facade. Stained glass window dedicated to "blessed eternity": about Jesus Christ are the apostles, saints and angels of paradise.
Square John XXIII ( СКВЕР ИОАННА XXIII) For the southern facade of Notre Dame Cathedral is square John XXIII. In place of the park was first dump debris, then, from the 17th century, - the residence of the archbishop. In 1831, the building was demolished, the prefect of the Seine wasteland bought Rambyuto, planted trees and flowers there and decorated the fountain of the Virgin (1845).
Conciergerie ( КОНСЬЕРЖЕРИ) Conciergerie - a part of the royal castle of the Capetians (14th century). Two towers of the castle - Caesar and Silver - are framed on both sides of the 17th century facades. From the Middle Ages the castle preserved hall warriors, armed security room, kitchen service, yard
The New Bridge The new bridge connects the western part of the Ile de la Cité with the two banks of the Seine. Contrary to its name, it is the oldest surviving bridge in Paris. The first stone was laid on May 31, The construction was completed in The bridge was owned by the prominent architect Andrue du Sers. Bridge was so strong that never rebuilt.
The equestrian statue of Henri IV (КОННАЯ СТАТУЯ ГЕНРИХА IV) In 1614, near the new bridge was the statue of Henry IV. During the French Revolution, the statue was removed from the pedestal, but restored in 1818 by the sculptor Lemo.
Basilica Sacre-Coeur ( БАЗИЛИКА САКРЕ-КЁР) When the Prussians besieged Paris in 1870, two French Catholics, Alexander de Roo and Lezhanti Fleury, vowed - if France win the war, to erect a church and dedicate it to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. France lost, but Paris escaped occupation. In 1875, construction of the basilica on people's donations. The project is designed by the architect Abadie. Church was consecrated in 1919, the Basilica was built in neo- Byzantine style of white sandstone. The interior is decorated with marble sculptures, stained glass and mosaics.
CATHEDRAL Invalides ( СОБОР ДОМА ИНВАЛИДОВ) Frequent wars have led to the fact that in the mid-17th century in France there are many forced begging retired soldiers with disabilities. In 1670, Louis XIV decided to build them a house and a temple. Cathedral nursing home (architect Aarduen-Mansart) - example of architectural elegance and symmetry. The facade is decorated with a double colonnade. Huge dome wreathed with golden garlands and flowers, gilded lantern crowned with a spire. In the crypt of the cathedral buried Napoleon Bonaparte.
Panteon (ПАНТЕОН) In 1744, Louis XV severely ill vowed to build a temple in honor of the patron saint of Paris Genevieve. Consecration of the church took place in During the French Revolution, the church was converted to the Pantheon - the tomb of the great. The architecture of the building - a sample of classicism. The arches of the structure supported by columns of Corinthian order. Window openings in the walls there. They are replaced by canvas-marufle pasted on the stone walls. Scenic loop created by Puvis de Chavannes and Laurent, is dedicated to St. Genevieve.
In the 20th century, the pillars of the dome of the Pantheon found four sculptural groups (clockwise): "Jean-Jacques Rousseau" (Bartolome, 1912), "For the glory of the generals of the revolution" (Gask, 1925), "orator and publicist of the Restoration" (Markest, 1919), "Diderot and encyclopedist" (Treruar, 1925) and the "National Convention" (Sukkar, 1924)
МАЯТНИК ФУКО) Foucault pendulum (МАЯТНИК ФУКО) By the light of the Pantheon dome attached acting copy of Foucault's pendulum, with which the physicist Leon Foucault in 1851 showed that the Earth rotates. The fact that this is indeed the case, can see anyone.
Palais Royal (ПАЛЕ-РОЯЛЬ) The palace was built in the 17th century on the orders of Cardinal Richelieu. After his death, the palace became the property of King Louis XIII. Once settled here Anne of Austria, became known as the Royal Palace (Palais Royal). The architectural ensemble of the Royal Palace consists of the palace, which has placed the Council of State, and the galleries that lined on three sides by the inner garden, planned by Louis XIV.
Columns of Buren ( КОЛОННЫ БЮРЕНА) Rear facade of the Palais-Royal in honor goes yard with an Ionic colonnade. In 1985, the series is built uneven striped columns. This unusual work by the author called the "Pillars Buren."
ПЛОЩАДЬ СОГЛАСИЯ) Concorde ( ПЛОЩАДЬ СОГЛАСИЯ) The place chosen for the area of Louis XV, and the project has developed JA Gabriel. The construction area was completed in Its modern form area acquired in 1836, when the architect Hitorf set in the center of Luxor Obelisk - Egyptian Pasha gift Mahmeta Ali.
Tuileries (ТЮИЛЬРИ) In the 16th century on the site of the garden was a dump, and produced here is used for the production of clay tiles - in French "Thuile," Where does the name of the Tuileries. By order of Catherine de Medici, the site was a garden, which became the first public place to walk in the open air
Arc de Triomphe on the Place du Carrousel ( ТРИУМФАЛЬНАЯ АРКА НА ПЛОЩАДИ КАРУСЕЛЬ) Triumphal arch was erected in the early 19th century in honor of Napoleon's victories. It is decorated with bas-reliefs depicting the most famous episodes of the Napoleonic Wars. Served as a triumphal arch triumphal entry into the residence of the emperor - the Tuileries Palace. The arch was the equestrian team, taken by order of Napoleon from the portal of the Cathedral of St. Mark in Venice. In 1815, the statue was returned to Italy, and the arch crowned with a statue of a bronze quadriga World.
Louvre Louvre palace complex has been formed many centuries. In the late 12th century, King Philip Augustus built a castle, defending the approaches to the Ile de la Cite. Fort called the Louvre (from leovar - appreciation) in the 14th century around the city walls and built the castle lost its defensive function. Under Charles V it was remodeled and converted into a royal residence. In the 16th century a large part of the building was demolished and the empty place built a new palace, which over time has been growing.
Until recently, the exposition of the museum took only the right wing of the palace, the Louvre and the old square yard. In 1981, it was decided to create a large Louvre. Ministry of Finance, which occupied the left wing of the palace, moved to another building, the museum area increased significantly. Faced with the problem of creating a single main entrance. Designed by Yeo Lay Ming yard built the Louvre glass pyramid which links all the departments of the museum underground passages. It housed a hall, offices, dressing, shopping, where you can buy catalogs, souvenirs and books.
The Louvre Museum As the Louvre Museum opened in Its centerpiece is a collection of French kings. At present, the Louvre houses more than 25,000 works of art. The museum is divided into 7 sections: Ancient East and Islamic art, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, Etruscan and Roman art, decorative arts, European paintings ( ), European Sculpture ( ), the schedule. Pearls collection of the Louvre are the Mona Lisa, Venus de Milo and Nike of Samothrace. Венера Милосская
Church of ST. Eustache ( ЦЕРКОВЬ СЕНТ-ЭСТАШ) Church of St. Eustache was built in the mid 18th century with money collected by traders is nearby market. It is one of the last Gothic churches of Paris. The peculiarity of the temple is in the combination of Gothic arches forms with Renaissance facade and columns. In this church was baptized by Moliere, Cardinal Richelieu, Madame de Pompadour. Here the church organ performed their works Berlioz and Liszt. Among the artistic treasures of the church - Rubens painting and sculpture Pigalle.
Palace of Justice ( ДВОРЕЦ ПРАВОСУДИЯ) In ancient times, this place was a palace of the Roman governors, and in the 13th century during the Capetian dynasty had built a fortified castle, which served as the seat of the first French kings. In the late 14th century, the royal palace was the Louvre, and in the old residence located Parisian parliament. After the French Revolution, the building became known as the Palace of Justice. Now it houses the highest court in France - the Court of Cassation.
SAINT CHAPELLE ( СЕН-ШАПЕЛЬ) The ensemble of the Palace of Justice is the chapel of Saint- Chapelle (Holy Chapel), built in the 13th century by order of Louis IX to house relics - the crown of thorns of Jesus Christ. Saint-Chapelle has two chapels, located one above the other. The lower court was intended for. At the top, he served for the royal family. Chapel crowned 75-meter spire. Delicate rose on the facade dates from the 15th century. In preserved stained glass lancet windows of the 13th century scenes on biblical subjects.
Field of Mars ( МАРСОВО ПОЛЕ) Field of Mars was created in the late 18th century as a training ground for the children of the Military School, and named in honor of the god of war. Here, the first horse races in Paris (1780), the first experiments on aerostatics (1783), the first attempt to go up in a balloon (1784). In 1889, the Champ de Mars was selected building the Eiffel Tower. In the early 20th century this beautiful park.
Eiffel Tower The symbol of Paris and France, the Eiffel Tower was built by engineer Gustave Eiffel in 1889, as an exhibit of the World Industrial Exhibition. 324-meter tower has three viewing platforms: at the height of 57, 115 and 276 m in the days of good visibility, with the upper observation deck look can reach space radius of 70 km.
СИСТЕМА ИЛЛЮМИНАЦИИ ЭЙФЕЛЕВОЙ БАШНИ В 1985 году была введена в действие система иллюминации, в соответствии с которой прожектора установили внутри самой башни так, что их направленный свет подчеркнул лёгкость и изящество конструкции. В 2000 году добавили «звёздное мерцание» - бегущие с огромной скоростью огоньки создают эффект чудесного фейерверка. Каждые 7 лет Эйфелеву башню красят вручную, добавляя в краску жёлтый пигмент, который в лучах прожекторов и ламп даёт дополнительное свечение.
Moulin Rouge The most famous cabaret in Paris opened in According to legend, the scene of the Moulin Rouge - the birthplace of the cancan. On stage, cabaret were: Ella Fitzgerald, Edith Piaf, Frank Sinatra, Elton John, Yves Montand, Jean Gabin, Charles Aznavour, Liza Minelli. In 1990, the theater was rebuilt and fully equipped with the latest technology, the old buildings are preserved only the wings of the Red Mill.
CENTRAL MARKET FORUM Once there were swamps. Then the land was drained and in 1137 opened the market, which became the commercial center of Paris. Zola described the place in the novel "The womb of Paris." Name Parisians liked and stuck with him. In 1969, the market was closed, and in its place the construction of a modern shopping center. Above ground up original buildings of glass and metal, and was established in a real underground city. Four underground floors Forum go down by 17.5 m Daylight penetrates the glazed gallery through a complex system of mirrors.
Forum contains about 250 shops, 20 bars and fast food restaurants, 23 cinemas, swimming pool, fitness center, media library, winter garden, dance and music halls.
Montparnasse Tower Tower of black glass and steel, built in 1973 by architects Baudouin, Cassano, de Mariana and Sabo, rises over Paris at 210 meters The fastest elevator in Europe in 38 seconds lifts passengers to a height of 195 m at 56 m and 59 second floors of the tower are open viewing platforms. View European skyscraper was so unnatural that in the central city high-rise buildings such decided not to build.
La Defense ( РАЙОН ДЕФАНС) Defense - is a business and shopping area in the north-west of Paris. It was created in years. under the direction of architect Le Corbusier. "Defense" is translated as "defense," and on a plan of urban planning area should serve as a "shield" protecting the historic part of Paris, developed in the centuries., From the influence of modern architecture.