S CHOOLS Education in Britain is compulsory from the ages of 5 to 16. The great majority of children attend Britain's 30,500 state schools. No tuition fees are payable in any of them. State schools are almost all day schools holding clasps between Mondays and Fridays. The school year is 39 weeks long and is divided into three terms: autumn (September to Christmas); winter (January to Easter) and summer (Easter to July). Each school day is divided into periods of minutes - time for various lessons - with minutes' breaks between them
Most the pupils' time is spent in the classroom or laboratories. Most classrooms have some form of large writing surface on which the teacher can make notes for the class Traditionally, this was in the form of a chalkboard but these are becoming less common, and are replaced by whiteboards and interactive whiteboards. Many classrooms also have TVs, maps, charts, books, LCD projectors for presenting information and images.
S CHOOL HOLIDAYS The summer holiday is around 6 weeks long; and there are two-week holidays at Christmas and New Year and at Easter. There are one week holidays in the middle of each term ('half term'). In Scotland, the school year starts a little earlier, in late August, and ends at the end of June. The school year starts at slightly different dates in different cities and we do not have a big festival for the start of the school year like you do here in Ukraine.
P RIMARY SCHOOLS In England, children start school when they are 5 years old. Sometimes, children start just before their 5th birthday. This is earlier than in Ukraine and indeed most other countries, where children start school when they are 6 or 7. Primary schools in England are divided into two: infant schools for ages 5-7 and junior schools for ages 7 to 11. In Scotland, children start school at the age of 6 and leave when they are 12.
T HE NATIONAL CURRICULUM FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLS In infant schools (ages 5-7), the main emphasis is on basic literacy and numeracy - learning to read and write and basic arithmetic. In Junior schools are required to teach: English, Mathematics, Science, Information Technology (Computers), Religious Education, Design and Technology- History, Geography, Art, Music and Physical Education. And, the NC lays down what is to be taught in each subject.
S ECONDARY S CHOOLS. At the age of 11 in England, children leave primary school and go to secondary school, and they are required to stay at school until they are 16. There are different sorts of secondary schools. The National Curriculum at Secondary schools includes: English, Mathematics, Science, Design and Technology, IT, History, Geography, Modem Foreign Languages, Art, Music and PE. Children are required to study a foreign language for only 3 years. The most popular are French, German and Spanish.
Comprehensive schools. These are schools for children of all abilities that aim to teach the full range of subjects Grammar schools. These are schools for the academically more able children. Children have to pass a test to get into grammar schools. In recent years, the government has encouraged schools to specialise in certain areas, e.g. science and technology. Specialised schools still have to leach the NC, but give more emphasis to their speciality.
U NIVERSITIES AND C OLLEGES IN G REAT B RITAIN. There are over 90 universities in GB. They are divided into three types: the old universities (Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities), in the 19th century universities, such as London and Manchester universities, and the new universities Full courses of study offer the degree of Bachelor of Art or Science. Most degree courses at universities last three years, language courses 4 years (including year spent aboard). Medicine and dentistry courses are longer (5-7 years). Students may receive grants from the Local Education Authority to help pay for books, accommodation, transport, and food. This grant depends on the income of their parents. Most students live away from home, in flats of halls of residence.