Plan: 1.Geographical position 2.Population 3.Educational system 4.Industry 5.Major cities
Geographical position of Uzbekistan The geographical position of Uzbekistan approximately corresponds to a rule of such Mediterranean states, as Spain, Italy, Greece. However natural conditions of Uzbekistan essentially differ from a nature of the specified subtropical countries. It is connected that our republic is much more removed from warm oceans and seas and, besides from north is open for penetration of dry and cold Arctic air weights. From the south to damp and warm air weights block a way highest mountains, such as Hindikush.
The area of Uzbekistan 447,4 thousand Km2. On the sizes of territory of Uzbekistan concedes to Russia, Kazakhstan, to Ukraine and Turkmenistan and at the same time borrows(occupies) the a little bit large area in comparison with such countries of Western Europe, as Great Britain (in 2 times), Belgium (in 14 times). In huge territory of republic stretched from border with Kazakhstan in north up to state border with Republic of Afghanistan in the south and from border with Tourkmenistan in west up to border with Tadjikistan and Kirghizia in east.
In the natural attitude(relation) territory of Uzbekistan located in pools of the main Central Asian rivers of Amu Darya and Sirdarya. Uzbekistan is located in Central Asia, in the large removal(distance) from oceans and other natural reservoirs. Therefore climate of republic hot, driest, sharply continental. Least mastered and most difficult for life of the people of territory of Uzbekistan - half-desert and desert, which borrow(occupy) almost 30 % of his(its) areas. These grounds, despite of difficulty of their development (there is not enough of water, and at times and complete absence of local water sources), - objects of more and more intensive economic use.
Last decade to republic annually accustomed up to 100 thousand ga. of new grounds. In 1980 in Uzbekistan was about 3,5 mln. ga. used water pour of grounds, and at sufficient water resources it would be possible to master 7-8 mln. ga. Turan a plate and land becoming subsequently mountains Tyan-Shan and Pamir-Alay. The plate this later on long time covered with the sea. The mountain systems were finally formed in a phase Alpine горнобразования; the products of destruction of raised mountains were born(taken out) on plains and наслаивались a top of sea adjournment.
The population: The population of Uzbekistan is more than 29 millions. In Uzbekistan lives is more than 130 nations. National structure: Uzbeks - 72 %, Russian - 8 %, Tadjikhs - 5 %, Kazakhs - 4 %, Karakalpakhs, Kirghiz, Turkmans, Tatars, Koreans, Uigurs, Jews, Armenians, Ukrainians and others
Size and Distribution Relative to the former Soviet Union as a whole, Uzbekistan is still largely rural: roughly 60 percent of Uzbekistan's population lives in rural areas. The capital city is Tashkent, whose 1990 population was estimated at about 2.1 million people. Other major cities are Samarqand (population 366,000), Namangan (308,000), Andijon (293,000), Bukhoro (224,000), Farghona (200,000), and Quqon (182,000). The population of Uzbekistan is exceedingly young. In the early 1990s, about half the population was under nineteen years of age. Experts expected this demographic trend to continue for some time because Uzbekistan's population growth rate has been quite high for the past century: on the eve of the collapse of the Soviet Union, only Tajikistan had a higher growth rate among the Soviet republics. Between 1897 and 1991, the population of the region that is now Uzbekistan more than quintupled, while the population of the entire territory of the former Soviet Union had not quite doubled. In 1991 the natural rate of population increase (the birth rate minus the death rate) in Uzbekistan was 28.3 per 1,000--more than four times that of the Soviet Union as a whole, and an increase from ten years earlier (see table 2, Appendix).
These characteristics are especially pronounced in the Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan (the Uzbek form for which is Qoroqalpoghiston Respublikasi), Uzbekistan's westernmost region. In 1936, as part of Stalin's nationality policy, the Karakalpaks (a Turkic Muslim group whose name literally means "black hat") were given their own territory in western Uzbekistan, which was declared an autonomous Soviet socialist republic to define its ethnic differences while maintaining it within the republic of Uzbekistan. In 1992 Karakalpakstan received republic status within independent Uzbekistan. Since that time, the central government in Tashkent has maintained pressure and tight economic ties that have kept the republic from exerting full independence. Today, the population of Karakalpakstan is about 1.3 million people who live on a territory of roughly 168,000 square kilometers. Located in the fertile lower reaches of the Amu Darya where the river empties into the Aral Sea, Karakalpakstan has a long history of irrigation agriculture. Currently, however, the shrinking of the Aral Sea has made Karakalpakstan one of the poorest and most environmentally devastated parts of Uzbekistan, if not the entire former Soviet Union.
Because the population of that region is much younger than the national average (according to the 1989 census, nearly three-quarters of the population was younger than twenty-nine years), the rate of population growth is quite high. In 1991 the rate of natural growth in Karakalpakstan was reportedly more than thirty births per 1,000 and slightly higher in the republic's rural areas. Karakalpakstan is also more rural than Uzbekistan as a whole, with some of its administrative regions (rayony ; sing., rayon ) having only villages and no urban centers--an unusual situation in a former Soviet republic. The growth of Uzbekistan's population was in some part due to in- migration from other parts of the former Soviet Union. Several waves of Russian and Slavic in-migrants arrived at various times in response to the industrialization of Uzbekistan in the early part of the Soviet period, following the evacuations of European Russia during World War II, and in the late 1960s to help reconstruct Tashkent after the 1966 earthquake. At various other times, non-Uzbeks arrived simply to take advantage of opportunities they perceived in Central Asia. Recently, however, Uzbekistan has begun to witness a net emigration of its European population. This is especially true of Russians, who have faced increased discrimination and uncertainty since 1991 and seek a more secure environment in Russia. Because most of Uzbekistan's population growth has been attributable to high rates of natural increase, the emigration of Europeans is expected to have little impact on the overall size and demographic structure of Uzbekistan's population. Demographers project that the population, currently growing at about 2.5 percent per year, will increase by 500,000 to 600,000 annually between the mid-1990s and the year Thus, by the year 2005 at least 30 million people will live in Uzbekistan.
High growth rates are expected to give rise to increasingly sharp population pressures that will exceed those experienced by most other former Soviet republics. Indeed, five of the eight most densely populated provinces of the former Soviet Union--Andijon, Farghona, Tashkent, Namangan, and Khorazm-- are located in Uzbekistan, and populations continue to grow rapidly in all five. In 1993 the average population density of Uzbekistan was about 48.5 inhabitants per square kilometer, compared with a ratio of fewer than six inhabitants per square kilometer in neighboring Kazakstan. The distribution of arable land in 1989 was estimated at only 0.15 hectares per person. In the early 1990s, Uzbekistan's population growth had an increasingly negative impact on the environment, on the economy, and on the potential for increased ethnic tension.
The education system of the Republic Uzbekistan is an integral part of life of the population of the country. In the country the uniform and continuous education system is provided. According to the law «About formation» in Republic Uzbekistan formation happens following kinds: Preschool education The general secondary education Average special, vocational training Higher education After higher educational formation Improvement of professional skill and retraining of personnel Educational system
Education is supervised by two national agencies, the Ministry of People's Education (for primary, secondary, and vocational education) and the Ministry of Higher Education (for postsecondary education). In 1993 Uzbekistan had 9,834 preschool centers, most of which were run by state enterprises for the children of their employees. An estimated 35 percent of children ages one to six attend such schools, but few rural areas have access to preschools. In the early 1990s, enterprises began closing schools or transferring them to direct administration of the Ministry of People's Education. A modest government construction program adds about 50,000 new places annually--a rate that falls far short of demand. Although experts rate most of Uzbekistan's preschools as being in poor condition, the government regards them as contributing vitally to the nutrition and education of children, especially when both parents work, a situation that became increasingly frequent in the 1990s. Education System
In 1993 enrollment in regular and vocational schools, which covered grades one through eleven (ages six through sixteen), was 4.9 million of the estimated 5.7 million children in that age-group. Because of funding shortages, in 1993 the period of compulsory education was shortened from eleven to nine years. The infrastructure problem of schools is most serious at the primary and secondary levels; the government categorizes 50 percent of school buildings as unsuitable, and repair budgets are inadequate. Construction of new schools has been delayed because the boards of capital construction of the two education ministries do not have direct control over contractor pricing or construction practices at local levels. School nutritional levels often are below state standards; an estimated 50 percent of students do not receive a hot meal. In 1992 about 5,300 of Uzbekistan's 8,500 schools had double shifts; because most of these schools were rural, this situation affected only 25 percent of students, however.
In 1993 an estimated 220,000 students were in vocational training programs, with about 100,000 students graduating annually from 440 schools. Working in close cooperation with local employers, the schools choose from 260 trades to offer instruction conforming with industrial needs. In the post-Soviet era, vocational curricula were modified to accommodate an upsurge in light industry. Experts agree that, as the national economy diversifies and expands, the vocational program must expand its coverage of key industries and streamline its organization, which suffered disorientation in its transition from the rigid Soviet system.
In 1992 some 321,700 students were enrolled in institutions of higher learning; of those, about 43 percent were in evening or correspondence courses. The enrollment represented about 19 percent of the seventeen to twenty age-group, a decrease from the more than 23 percent reported in In 1992 enrollment declined because an entrance examination was used for the first time, Russian emigration continued, and the economy's demand for college graduates fell. Experts predicted that the government would restrict admittance levels until its policies succeed in expanding the economy. Fifty-three institutions of higher learning, many with productive research programs, were active in Higher education is hindered, however, by a shortage of laboratories, libraries, computers and data banks, and publishing facilities to disseminate research findings.
The state higher education system includes three universities, located at Nukus, Samarqand, and Tashkent. Tashkent State University, which has 19,300 students and 1,480 teachers, is the largest university in Central Asia; it has sixteen full departments, including three devoted to philology and one to Asian studies. Some twenty research institutes offer courses in specialized areas of medicine, veterinary science, and industry and technology. Another thirty institutes of higher learning offer postsecondary studies in medicine, agriculture, teaching, engineering, industrial technology, music, theater, economics, law, pharmacy, and political science; seventeen of the latter category are located in Tashkent.
Uzbekistan is a country with a developed industry. Forty percent of production and more than a million people are engaged in this sector of economy. The share of the sector in making the country's GDP makes up 14 percent. Leading sectors of the industry are: cotton cleaning, machine building, textile, gas, precious metals, electronics, instrument making, aviation, oil processing, car making, and agricultural processing. Other sectors, including chemical and oil and chemical, power, metallurgy, sector of construction materials and light industries are developing fast. Industry of Uzbekistan More than 2,200 concerns, companies and enterprises, engaged in more than 100 sectors of the economy, produce a wide variety of goods. They are aircrafts, tractors, automobiles and trucks, mechanical cotton harvesters, cables, looms, excavators, lifting cranes, elevators, power transformers, compressor stations and pipe compressors, TV-and radio- sets, refrigerators, fertilizers, construction materials, varnishes and paints, fabrics, cotton-fiber, and many others. The fuel industry is another equally important sector of economy. The given sector mainly comprised of gas extraction and brown coal mining. The amount of extracted gas not only allows meeting domestic needs, but also it allows exporting it abroad. The largest deposits of gas are in Gazly, Uchkir, Urtabulok, Mubarak, and Shakhpakhty. The Mubarak gas processing plant is now operating. The quick explorations of oil deposits allowed Uzbekistan import no more oil products.
The largest sectors of industry on the amount of production are fuel and energy (25 percent), light and food industries (30,6 percent). Before 1991, Uzbekistan used to import nearly 6 million tons of oil. After the country gained its independence, it had set to fulfill the strategic task of total reconstruction of oil and gas industries, and secure the self-maintenance in oil products. Uzbekistan has powerful thermoelectric power stations, which generate almost 90 percent of electric power in the country. Annual electric power generation is sufficient for total consumption needs of the country. The metallurgical industry is comprised of companies that extract, treat and process raw, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, This sector makes more than 10 percent out of the total of industrial production. There are many predicted reserves of gold, silver, copper, uranium, lead, zinc, tungsten, molybdenum, lithium, aluminum, and other rare metals and minerals in the country. Given that, the share of the metallurgy is expected to further rise in the total amount of industrial production. Products put out by the industry, especially those of non-ferrous and precious metals, are considered to be a rare at the world market, and will serve a good reason to extend their export with a view of enriching the country's currency fund. The non-ferrous metallurgy, with its main base in the Angren and Almalyk mining industrial area, includes production of copper, refractory and heatproof metals, and gold, respectively. The largest enterprise of the sector is the Almalyk Mining and Smelting Enterprise. The share of the chemical -and oil and chemical industry in the total industrial production comes to a 5,3 percent. It includes four branches such as basic chemistry, oil and chemical, microbiology, as well as chemical and pharmacological. The main objective behind extending chemical industry was to solve the problem of agriculture, that is, to supply the sector with fertilizers. This explains the huge share of the chemical sector in the total production in the given sphere. The chemical industry is comprised of companies that make fertilizers, chemical fibers and filaments, synthetic washing tools, varnish and paints, plastic and synthetic pitch, and others. The oil and chemical industry produces more than 20 kinds of goods, 15 of which are now locally produced en lieu of being imported.
The companies in microbiological sector such as the Chirchik Electric and Chemical Enterprise, the Samarkand Super-phosphate Enterprise, and others, put out protein, various spirits, including table and ethyl. With a view of improving the ecological situation, and use of the latest technology, the Ferghana "Azot" Company and Chirchik "Electrokhimprom" were reconstructed. The machine building - the basis of reequipping of all of the sectors of economy - saw the large- scale improvement, as well. The sector, which manufactures machines, used in farming, take the leading role in the sphere. There are more than 300 machine building and metal processing enterprises in the country. The initial cotton processing and other activities related to it influenced much the development of the sector because it had begun to manufacture the machinery for harvesting, cotton cleaning, and textile industries. Other fields such as aviation, automobile, electronics, and heavy machine building are also developing. Jointly with South Korea's "Daewoo" the JV "Uzdaewooauto" was built in the town of Asaka, the Ferghana Valley. Cars such as "Nexia", "Tico", "Damas", Lacettiand "Matiz" put out at the joint venture are popular not only in Uzbekistan, but also abroad, for example, in the newly independent states. Also, another JV, "SamKocauto", that produces buses and trucks has been launched in Samarkand jointly with Turkish partners in the field. Thus, the creation of the new branch of economy- the automobile building - is under way. In addition, there are associated enterprises are now launched based on production of assembly parts. There is a largest aviation plant, and the only one that makes the military-transport aircraft, namely "IL-76" in the country. Over the last years, the share of the heavy industry within the total amount of industrial production has increased. And accordingly, the share of the light and food industries has decreased. The given tendency calls for creation of the new independent national economy.
During the first stages of economic reforms, the country chose to limit the consumer market by redirecting all the efforts and funds onto structural changes in the economy, and grounding the foundation for the modern export-oriented production, equipped with the latest technology. The light and textile industry is also significant in creating and extending the industrial complex of the country. More than third of the total number of industrial companies in Uzbekistan are concentrated in the given sector, as well as make up the country's basic funds and number of personnel engaged, huge share of the foreign trade balance, and currency revenues. Given the specific features of the country with its large farming practice, the diverse light industry was put in place incorporating production of the cotton-fiber, cotton and silk cloths, raw silk, ambary fiber, hosiery, upper and linen knitted wear, ready-made garments, footwear, and other. The making of carpets, haberdashery, and china-faience ware is considered to be a part of the country's light industry. The main centers of raw silk and silk cloth production are in Ferghana, Namangan, and Bukhara provinces. There are cloth factories now operating all around the nation. The city of Khiva is famous for its carpet making industry. The cotton-cleaning sector is the dominant one in the industry. The enterprises in the sphere are usually based in the areas close to cotton sowing regions. However, the industry still lacks in such enterprises given there are new areas explored for cotton sowing practice. The food industry is mostly based upon processing of local agricultural raw. The oil making with processing of cottonseeds is one of important sectors of the given industry. The flour grinding, production of diary and meat, non-alcoholic drinks as well as bakery, and confectionary put in place nationwide. There are various companies, specialized in making of cans, oils, macaroni, tobacco, wine, liqueur and cognac, fresh and dry fruits, vegetables, melons and water-melons, and other kinds of products of high demand among the population.
The role of the gold-mining industry in the country's economy is very important. The quality of Uzbek gold meets the highest world standards. There are several companies, and some of them are established jointly with foreign capital, now operating in the sphere. In 1995, in cooperation with American "Newmont Mining", Uzbekistan launched a joint venture, namely "Zarafshon-Newmont" on the mining and processing of precious metals. Now, it operates for 24 hours a day, and processes more than 37 tons of ore dump a day with further extraction of world-class gold and silver. The enterprise is equipped with the latest technology. Also, with participation of the same "Newmont Mining" and credits, allotted by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), another joint venture has been launched on production of gold from the dump that come out from the Navoi Mining and Smelting enterprise. Other projects are also under way on the mining and processing of non-ferrous, precious and rare metals. The fuel industry is another equally important sector of economy. The given sector mainly comprised of gas extraction and brown coal mining. The amount of extracted gas not only allows meeting domestic needs, but also it allows exporting it abroad. The largest deposits of gas are in Gazly, Uchkir, Urtabulok, Mubarak, and Shakhpakhty. The Mubarak gas processing plant is now operating. The quick explorations of oil deposits allowed Uzbekistan import no more oil products.
Major cities of Uzbekistan - Tashkent, Khiva, Bukhara and Samarkand - are located along the Great silk way and connected among themselves by the active transport message. Tashkent appears as itself a modern and cosmopolitan city. Another matter - Khiva, Samarkand and Bukhara. Only here it is possible to see the present East which almost has been not mentioned by external influence. Major cities of Uzbekistan
The history of Tashkent totals more than 2000 for which there is passed a way from small ancient settlement to one of the largest cities of the Central Asia, Republic Uzbekistan capital. Throughout centuries the city has worried many memorable events of the peace life and a military hardship, the lifting and decline periods. The first data on Tashkent contain in historical the east chronicles of II century BC where the Tashkent oasis is called as Juni and is described as the territory which was a part of the state Kangjuj. Tashkent Samarkand Samarkand - Empire Temurlane Capital. One of the most ancient cities of the world with 2750-year-old history, the coeval of Rome, Athenes, Babylon. Long since drew to itself looks of politicians, businessmen, travellers. Special blossoming and greatness has reached at great Temur. Native Shahrisabz, saxibkuran has made Samarkand capital of the mighty empire. The city occupied a favourable geographical position, being an important crossroads on the Great silk way. In Samarkand the magnificent samples of medieval architecture amazing with perfection of forms, riches of paints have remained.
"Bukhara-and-sharif" - "noble and sacred" is one of numerous epithets by which this ancient city was awarded. Great poets of the East of 1H centuries Rudaki, devoted Firdafsiy to it kasidas. In X century "the History of Bukhara" has been written. The first period of existence of Bukhara has found the reflexion in the national epos, numerous legends. The great silk way connecting China with Iran, India and Europe, passed as well through Bukhara. Bukhara is one of few cities of the world who continuously developed on the same place, since V century BC Bukhara Khiva - an ancient city in lower reaches of Amu Darya. For the first time Khiva is mentioned in written sources of X century as the small city located on karavan to road between Marv and Urgench (modern Kunja-Urgench). Such favourable position does Khiva by considerable shopping centre. Especially the great value is got by it in a XVIII-th century when becomes capital of Khoresm (Khivan khanate). However in XVIII century feudal dissociation, dynastic distempers, enmity with the next tribes and the states weakened the country. And only in the XIX-th century beginning, after the statement Kungrat dynasties, Khiva is formed as the considerable cultural centre. Khiva
Andijan - one of the most ancient cities of Fergana valley, an administrative centre of the Andijan area and the fourth on size a city of Uzbekistan. Andijan is located in a southeast part of Fergana valley, on ancient adjournment of the river Andijansay, in 260 km to the southeast from Tashkent (447 on road), in 45 km to the northwest from O`sh. The city is at height of 450 metros above sea level. Its general area - 74,3 sq.km. Andizhan borders from the northwest on Altynkul area, from the north, the northeast and the southeast - with the Andijan area. Andijan Jizzax - an administrative centre of the Jizzax area in Uzbekistan. Jizzax is located on the river Sanzar, at northern bottom of mountains Nurota, in a southern part of Hungry steppe, in 180 km to the southwest from Tashkent and in 90 km to the northeast from Samarkand. By data for 2004 the population of Jizzax makes 138 thousand 400 persons. The city of Jizzax has arisen on a place of one of the most ancient trading settlements in Central Asia. Jizzax
Namangan - a city located in the east of Uzbekistan, an administrative centre of the Namangan area. It is approximately in 430 km to the east from Tashkent, in 65 km to the West from Andizhan and in 75 km to the north from Fergana. The city towers on 476 m above sea level. Today the territory of Namangan and the abolished Davlatabad area is made by uniform administrative-territorial formation. The population of Namangan by data for 2007 makes persons. Namangan Termez which has celebrated the anniversary on April, 2nd, 2002, has rich history. Termez played an important role in development of culture of the people of the Central Asia. It is one of the most ancient cities, brought the considerable contribution to development of the Great Silk way which was in due time the basic crossroads of a world civilization. Through Termez in China and in the Far East the Buddhism and the architectural traditions connected with it extended. The convenient strategic and geographical arrangement of Termez drew attention of governors of many states. Termez
Nukus - capital of the autonomous republic Karakalpakstan which is a part of Republic Uzbekistan, its administrative, economic and scientifically-cultural centre. The city is located in the north of Uzbekistan, in a southern part of modern delta of Amu Darya, close almost dried up Aral sea, among sandy spaces. This green oasis three deserts - Kara Kum (Black sand), Kizil Kum (Red sand) and stony desert - a plateau surround Ustyurt. Nukus Navoiy - a city in Republic Uzbekistan, an administrative centre and a big city of Navoiy area. Other important city of area is Uchkuduk. Earlier on a place of the city of Navoiy there was a settlement Kermine, there is no time a part of Bukhara khanate. In 1958 according to the decision of the government around settlement building of mountain- metallurgical industrial complex has begun, and the new city which has received the name of Navoiy, in honour of the well-known east poet Alisher Navoiy has been based. Navoiy