A DIVERSE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Structure, standards, and challenges. - презентация
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Презентация на тему: " A DIVERSE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Structure, standards, and challenges." — Транскрипт:
A DIVERSE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Structure, standards, and challenges
The Portrait of the Current US Education There is no national school system There are no schools run by the federal government (except military academies) The government provides guidance and funding for federal educational programs in which both public and private schools take part The U.S. Department of Education oversees federal educational programs. There are public, private schools and home schooling.
The United States has had a strong commitment to education from colonial times. Universities were founded in the earliest days of the settlers. Harvard University was founded in 1636, 15 years after the Pilgrim Fathers had landed. There were 8 other colleges before Every American is entitled to an education. Over the years, since its founding and expansion in the 19th century, the free public school system has been embracing generation after generation of new immigrants and providing them with skills and knowledge.
STRUCTURE The federal government has no power to make laws in the field of education. It provides funds for educational programs. The Department of Health, Education and Welfare, headed by a member of the Cabinet, is responsible for education. Each state has an educational administration which lays down general principals concerning the organization of schools and other questions. Schools are provided and managed by local community boards of education.
ELEMENTARY EDUCATION Begins at the age of 6 and means grades kindergarten (K) through 8. In some places it includes grades K-6. Although there is no national curriculum, almost every elementary school provides instruction in these subjects: mathematics, language arts, penmanship, science, social studies, music, art and physical education. Sometimes a second language is taught in the upper elementary grades.
SECONDARY EDUCATION It is in one or two stages. From the age of 11 or 12 to 18 the term high school is used, though the first three years of this are called junior high school and the senior classes are called senior high school. Most secondary schools offer the same core of required subjects: English, mathematics, science, social studies physical education. There is an immense choice of academic and non-academic courses. Elective courses vary from school to school.
EDUCATIONAL ISSUES Until the 1950s, there were many required and few elective courses. In the 1960s and 1970s, the trend was to give students more choices. By the 1980s, there was a significant decline of American students average scores on standardized tests of mathematics, reading and science. About 99 percent of adult Americans reported in the 1990 census that they could read and write. But critics claimed that 13% of Americas 17-year-olds were functionally illiterate. The U.S. Department of Education established a national commission to examine the question which gave some recommendations and the scores have been rising.
In 1989 President George Bush and the governors of all 50 states gave the movement to reform American education a new impetus when they set six goals to be achieved by the year 2000: That all children will start school ready to learn. That 90 percent of all high school students will graduate. That all students will achieve competence in core subjects at certain key points in their progress. That American students will be first in the world in math and science achievement. That every American adult will be literate and have the skills to function as a citizen and a worker. That all schools will be free of drugs and violence and offer a disciplined environment that is conducive to learning.
Goals 2000 Congress established a program called Goals 2000, by which the states receive federal grants to help them reach the goals. By 1996, progress had been made percent of American students completed high school, scores on national math and science tests had gone up one full grade, and half of all four-year-olds attended programs to prepare them for school.
SOCIAL ISSUES Schools must cope with an influx of immigrant children, many of whom speak little or no English They must respond to demands that the curriculum reflect the various cultures of all children. Schools must make sure that students develop basic skills for the job market, and they must consider the needs of nontraditional students, such as teen-age mothers Schools are also teaching cognitive skills to the nearly 40 percent of American students who do not go on to higher education.
A SNAPSHOT OF AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION The widespread availability of a college education in America dates back to 1944, when Congress passed a law popularly known as the GI Bill. (GI -- meaning "government issue" -- was a nickname for an American soldier, and the law provided financial aid to members of the armed forces after World War II was over.) By 1955 more than 2 million veterans of World War II and the Korean War had used the GI Bill to go to college. Many of them came from poor families and would not have had the chance to go to college without the law. The program's success changed the American image of who should attend college.
There are some 2,819 institutions offering a Bachelors or higher degree; 2,657 institutions offering an associates degree Institutions are classified: Research Universities (extensive theoretical and applied research programs) Doctorate-granting Universities Masters Universities and Colleges (Bachelors and Masters degrees levels) Baccalaureate (Liberal Arts) Colleges (Bachelors degree level) Associate or Arts Colleges (public community colleges) Professional Schools
Admission examinations based on SAT test have been criticized because the examinations tend to measure only competence in English and mathematics. The number of electives in the curriculum.