Participle (причастие) Форма глагола, которая является промежуточной между прилагательным и наречием с одной стороны и глаголом с другой
The participles are: Present participle (staying, leaving, etc.) Past participle (stayed, left, etc.) Perfect participle (having left, etc.)
Present and past participle can be used as adjectives. The present participle (-ing) describes what somebody or something is (it answers the question What kind?). E.g. It was an embarrassing situation. (What kind of situation? Embarrassing.)
The past participle (-ed) Describes how somebody or something feels ( it answers the question How do you feel?). E.g. He was embarrassed. (How did he feel? Embarrassed.)
Причастие I и II также как и прилагательное могут быть определениями и стоять перед существительным (The discussed question) Но чаще прилагательное стоит после существительного: E.g. Женщина, стоящая у окна – моя старшая сестра. The woman standing at the window is my elder sister.
Perfect participle is used very seldom and need us to express time and sometimes reason. to express time: Having taken his Masters degree, he applied for a job. to express reason Having seen the film before, I decided to stay at home. Примечание: в школьной программе Perfect Participle не изучается
Participles can also be used: - Instead of a relative pronoun and full verb. E.g. The woman waiting for me is my aunt. The new shampoo advertised on TV is very expensive. - to express reason. E.g. Feeling shy, Laura didnt talk to Ben. - to express time. E.g. We met John while shopping. - instead of the past simple in narratives when we describe actions happening immediately one after other. E.g. Hearing the news, she fainted. - to avoid repeating the past countinuous in the same sentence. E.g. He was walking down the street whistling a tune. (= He was walking down the street and he was whistling a tune.)
Примечание 1 Для обозначения предмета, которое совершает действие, выраженное причастием II, употребляется предложный оборот с предлогом by. E.g. Я получил вчера письмо, написанное вами. Yesterday I got the letter written by you.
Примечание 2 Причастный оборот или придаточное предложение должны следовать за тем существительным. К которому они относятся ( иначе меняется смысл) E.g. Id like to go and see my friends sister writing a new book. Мне бы хотелось навестить сестру моего друга, которая пишет новую книгу. Е.g. Id like to go and see the sister of my friend writing a new book. Мне бы хотелось навестить сестру моего друга, который пишет новую книгу.
Lets train… Underline the correct word Did you enjoy the horror film? - No, it was very frightened/frightening Mark is always biting his nails. - I know. Its an extremely annoyed/annoying habit Why doesnt John study French? - He is not interested/interesting in learning of foreign languages What did you think of that new restaurant? - It was awful! The food was disgusted/disgusting Miss Shaw is a wonderful teacher. - Yes, she is always encouraged/encouraging in her attitude towards the students.
6. - Do you like windsurfing? - Yes. I find it very excited/exciting Vicky is a good at art, isnt she? - Yes. I was impressed/impressing by her paintings Did you see the fireworks last night? - Yes. It was an amazed/amazing display.
Rewrite the sentences using the participles. E.g. Because she was tired, Katie went to bed. Being tired, Katie went to bed. 1. He was sitting in the garden and he was drinking his tea. 2. After Jannet had made dinner, she called the children. 3. The boy who is standing by the door is my brother. 4. Simon cut his hand while he was chopping some wood. 5. Donna had a shower before she went to bad. 6. Because we were late, we took a taxi. 7. Gary opened the window and breathed the fresh air.
9. She was lying on her bed and she was reading a book. 10. The jewels which were taken by the thieves were very valuable. 11. Amy picked up her pen and started to write the letter. 12. The man who is walking towards us is a relative of mine. 13. After the teacher had explaned