Different tendencies, art movements and styles Surrealism Symbolism Bohemianism Nationalism Gothicism Expressionism Sentimentalism Classicism The Academy Utilitarianism Realism Rationalism The Enlightenment Objectivism Positivism
Abstract art Abstract art uses a visual language of form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. Western art had been, from the Renaissance up to the middle of the 19th century. The arts of cultures other than the European had become accessible and showed alternative ways of describing visual experience to the artist. By the end of the 19th century many artists felt a need to create a new kind of art which would encompass the fundamental changes taking place in technology, science and philosophy.visual languageWestern artRenaissance Wassily KandinskyWassily Kandinsky, On White 2, 1923 Kazimir MalevichKazimir Malevich, Black Square, c. 1915
Romanticism Romanticism is a complex artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Industrial Revolution. It was partly a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature, and was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature.Western Europe Industrial RevolutionAge of Enlightenment Caspar David FriedrichCaspar David Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog,Wanderer above the Sea of Fog 1818, Oil on canvas, Kunsthalle HamburgKunsthalle Hamburg
Cubism Cubism was a 20th century avant- garde art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. The first branch of cubism, known as "Analytic Cubism", was both radical and influential as a short but highly significant art movement between 1907 and 1911 in France. In its second phase, Synthetic Cubism, the movement spread and remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity.avant- gardeart movement Pablo PicassoGeorges Braque paintingsculpturemusic literatureSurrealist Georges BraqueBraque, 'Woman with a Guitar, 1913
Expressionism Expressionism was a cultural movement originating in Germany at the start of the 20th-century as a reaction to positivism and other artistic movements such as naturalism and impressionism. It sought to express the meaning of "being alive" and emotional experience rather than physical reality. It is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an emotional effect; it is a subjective art form.cultural movement 20th-century positivismnaturalismimpressionismemotional "View of Toledo" by El Greco,El Greco 1595/1610 Franz MarcFranz Marc, Fighting Forms, 1914.
Impressionism Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence in the 1870s and 1880s. The name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review published in Le Charivari.19th-century art movementexhibitionsClaude MonetImpression, SunriseLouis LeroycoinLe Charivari Impressionism also describes art created in this style, but outside of the late 19th century time period. Claude MonetClaude Monet, Impression,Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), 1872, oil on canvas, Musee Marmottan Edgar DegasEdgar Degas, Dancers at The Bar, 1888, The Phillips Collection,Phillips Collection Washington, DC
Classicism Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained.artsclassical antiquity Classicism is a force which is often present in post- medieval European and European influenced traditions. The Inspiration of a Poet, Nicholas Poussin, 1630Nicholas Poussin Detail of Fountain of the Four Rivers, BerniniBernini, 1651
Realism Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. The term also describes works of art which, in revealing a truth, may emphasize the ugly.visual arts literatureeveryday life Realism often refers to the artistic movement, which began in France in the 1850s. The popularity of realism grew with the introduction of photography - a new visual source that created a desire for people to produce things that look objectively real.France photography Ilya RepinIlya Repin, They did not Expect Him, Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet, Realistic painting by GustaveGustave CourbetCourbet.