EXPOSITION Sets forth or expounds the situation or state of affairs, out of which the conflict arises. Exposition is the task of Act 1 and often part or most of Act 2. Makes us aware of the general setting, people, their traits, problems, and conflicts or potential conflicts. By the end of act 2 we know: the overriding problem, major conflict, major characters, the protagonist or tragic hero, and his tragic flaw.
DEVELOPMENT: RISING ACTION Growth and nature of the conflict forms the bulk - part of act 1, most of acts 2, 3, and 4, and part of act 5. Unveils the developing complications arising from the conflicts as the problem intensifies. Time and a sense of urgency become increasingly important as the speed of the action increases. Sense of inevitability, tragic hero alienating allies, & is finally all alone with his back to the wall in act 5.
DEVELOPMENT: FALLING ACTION From act 2 onwards: tragic hero is powerful, advancing, then scattering the opposition until, late in the 4 th act, when a reversal of the situation starts taking place. Opposing forces begin to openly resist and to make plans for the removal of the tragic hero, and the hero's power is obviously declining as the opposition's power advances.
TRAGIC RESOLUTION In the final acts: opposition reaches full strength and defeats/destroys the isolated, weakened hero. Tragic Recognition: in the final scenes become aware again of the heros greatness. Macbeth is dead: we can see the justice, but the feeling of satisfaction at the death of a tyrant or killer is conspicuously lacking.
THE TRAGIC HERO, IN GENERAL Usually, there is only one tragic hero. The so-called "Love Tragedies are exceptions to the rule (such as in Romeo & Juliet). Shakespeare's tragedies are usually stories of one person, the "hero, or at most two, to include the "heroine. Macbeth has a single star, so the tragic story is concerned primarily with one person.
THE TRAGIC HERO AND THE TRAGIC "STORY" The tragic story leads up to, and includes, the death of the hero The suffering and calamity are exceptional They befall a conspicuous person They are of a striking kind They are unexpected They are contrasted with previous happiness and/or glory No play that ends with the hero alive is, in the full Shakespearean sense, a tragedy.
THE TRAGIC HERO AND THE TRAGIC "STORY, CONT. The story also depicts the troubled part of the hero's life which precedes and leads up to his death. It is essentially a tale of suffering and calamity, conducting the hero to death. Shakespeare's tragic heroes are men of rank, and the calamities that befall them are unusual and exceptionally disastrous in themselves. The hero falls unexpectedly from a high place, a place of glory, or honor, or joy, and as a consequence, we feel a kind of awe at the depths to which he is suddenly plunged. Thus, the catastrophe will be of monumental proportions. A tale of a man slowly worn to death would not be tragic in the Shakespearean sense of the word. Such exceptional suffering and calamity affects the hero, makes the whole scene a scene of woe, and triggers pity.
Peasants do not inspire pity and fear as great men do A Shakespearean tragedy is a story of Exceptional Calamity leading to the death of a man of high estate! The pangs of despised love and the anguish of remorse are the same in a peasant and a prince The heros fate affects the welfare of a whole nation or empire; when he falls suddenly from that height, his fall produces a sense of contrast, the powerlessness of man, the omnipotence of Fate/Fortune, which no tale of private life could possibly rival. We can extend the definition of Shakespearean tragedy to "a story of exceptional calamity, leading to the death of a man of high estate." ONLY GREAT MEN QUALIFY AS TRAGIC HEROES
TRAGEDY, HUMAN FLAWS, AND RESPONSIBILITY The calamities of tragedy proceed mainly from the actions of men. Shakespeare's tragic heroes are responsible for the catastrophe of their own falls. The Effect: we regard the suffering and catastrophe as something which happens to and is caused by the hero. Human beings placed in situations - from their relationships, certain actions arise. Actions cause other actions – Interconnected deeds leads to complications and inevitable catastrophe. The Center of the tragedy: action issuing from character, of flawed perceptions, and of human frailty for which the hero is ultimately responsible. The hero recognizes responsibility for the catastrophe which befalls him too late to prevent his death.
TRAGIC CONFLICT: EXTERNAL Only two people – the hero is one Passions, tendencies, ideas, principles, and forces animate them Or two Parties or Groups, one of which the hero leads
TRAGIC CONFLICT: INTERNAL Shakespeare's tragic hero, though he pursues his fated way, is torn by an inward struggle The conception of outer and inner struggle includes the action of "spiritual forces."
THE ABNORMAL, THE SUPERNATURAL, FATE, FORTUNE & CHANCE Shakespeare occasionally represents abnormal conditions of mind: insanity, somnambulism, hallucinations Shakespeare also introduces the super- natural: ghosts and witches who have supernatural knowledge Shakespeare, in most of the tragedies, allows "chance" in some form to influence some of the action These are subordinate - dominant factors are the deeds of the character.
The Abnormal Conditions of mind are never introduced as the origin of any deeds or any dramatic moment. Lady Macbeth's sleepwalking has no influence whatsoever on the events that follow it. Macbeth did not murder Duncan because he saw a dagger in the air; he saw a dagger in the air because he was about to murder Duncan.
Supernatural Elements contributes to the action, but is always placed in the closest relation with character gives confirmation and distinct form to inward movements already present and influential the half- formed thought or the horrified memory of guilt in Macbeth. cannot be explained away as an illusion in the mind of one of the characters
Watch for accidents in character traits or behavior flaws which are not really accidents large use of accident would weaken the sense of the causal connection of character, deed, catastrophe Man may start a course of events but can neither calculate nor control it; a tragic fact. Shakespeare uses accidents to make us feel this. Operation of Chance Or Accident, Fortune, & Fate: a prominent fact of life.
It is therefore inherent in Shakespearean tragedy that the tragic hero or protagonist is responsible through his own behavior or action, for the exceptional nature of the catastrophe itself. So a tragedy is... A story of exceptional calamity leading to the death of a man of high estate, AND a story of human actions, producing exceptional calamity in the death of such a man.
External And Internal conflicts Which lead to complica- tions from which further conflicts arise in a kind of snowballing effect Driving the action toward a Tragic resolution The action of the Protagonist / Tragic Hero is most often motivated by:
In Macbeth, we have the hero, Macbeth, and the heroine, Lady Macbeth, opposed to the representatives of Duncan, Malcolm, and Macduff. In this case, the great majority of the Dramatis Personae falls without difficulty into two antagonistic groups, and the conflict between these groups ends with the defeat of the hero.
External conflict will be there, but there is more to it than that. The type of tragedy in which an undivided soul is opposed to a hostile force is not the Shakespearean type. But, we must also be aware of the internal conflicts the hero tries to deal with, while hostile forces begin to surround him, and eventually overwhelm him.
Whatever forces act in the human spirit, whether good or evil, whether personal passion or impersonal principle; doubts, desires, scruples, ideas--whatever can animate, shake, possess, and drive a man's soul--these are the "spiritual forces" generating the internal turmoil for the hero. Treasonous ambition collides in Macbeth with loyalty, the laws of hospitality, patriotism in Macduff and Malcolm; this is the outer conflict.
But these same forces collide in the soul of Macbeth as well; here is the inner conflict. It is a combination of the pressures of the external and internal struggles or conflicts that make Shakespearean tragedy. All of this leads us to once again expand our definition of the tragic hero/protagonist.
COMMON QUALITIES OF THE TRAGIC HERO/PROTAGONIST A fundamental trait: tragic heroes are exceptional beings contribute to their own destruction by acts because of a flaw in their character or by tragic error the audience must desire the defeat or destruction of the tragic hero, but this in itself does not constitute tragic feeling
THEY ARE EXCEPTIONAL BEINGS Being of high estate is not everything His nature is also exceptional and raises him above the average level of humanity Tragic heroes are made of the stuff found in ourselves and within the persons who surround him
But, by an intensification of the life which they share with others, they are raised above them; and the greatest are raised so far that, if we fully realize all that is implied in their words and actions, we become conscious that in real life we have scarcely known anyone resembling them. They have a fatal gift that carries with it a touch of greatness (fierce determination, fixed ideas); and when nobility of mind, or genius, or immense force are joined to it, we realize the full power and reach of the soul, and the conflict in which it engages acquires that magnitude which stirs not only sympathy and pity, but admiration, terror, and awe.
THEY WILL HAVE A TRAGIC FLAW that often takes the form of obsession this tragic trait, which is also his greatness, is fatal to him To meet these circumstances, something is required which a smaller man might have given, but which the hero cannot give
THEY WILL HAVE A TRAGIC FLAW He errs, by action or omission; and his error, joining with other causes, brings on his ruin This fatal imperfection or error is of differing kinds and degrees At one extreme stands the excess (like Romeo), which scarcely diminishes our regard for him, and at the other extreme is murderous ambition
THEY WILL HAVE A TRAGIC FLAW In most cases, the tragic error involves no conscious breach of right; in some (like Brutus), it is accompanied by a full conviction of right Only Richard III and Macbeth do what they themselves know to be villainous Why are we affected by such villains?
Shakespeare gives Richard a power and audacity which excite astonishment and a courage which extorts admiration. He gives to Macbeth a similar, though less extra- ordinary greatness, and adds to it a conscience so terrifying in its warnings and so maddening in its reproaches that the spectacle of inward torment compels a horrified sympathy and awe which balance at the least, the desire for the hero's ruin.
Shakespeare's tragic heroes need not be "good," though they generally are good– Shakespeare's tragic heroes project that man is not small or contemptible, no matter how rotten he can be Shakespeare's tragic heroes illustrate the center of the tragic impression: the sense of waste– Shakespeare's tragic heroes live for what seems to be a type of the mystery of the whole world.
THEY NEED NOT BE "GOOD" has so much greatness that in his error and fall that we see the possibilities of human nature. Shakespearean Tragedy is never depressing No one ever closes the book with the feeling that man is a poor, mean creature His lot may be heart-rending and mysterious, but it is not contemptible He may be wretched and awful, but he is not small
CONNECTED TO THE GREATNESS IS A SENSE OF WASTE: What a great man the tragic hero could have been – should have been! pity and fear are stirred by the tragic story a profound sense of sadness and mystery
We seem to have before us a type of the mystery of the whole world, the tragic fact that extends far beyond the limits of tragedy. Everywhere, from the crushed rocks beneath our feet to the soul of man, we see power, intelligence, life, and glory which astound us and seem to call for admiration. And everywhere, we see men perishing, devouring one another, and destroying themselves, often with dreadful pain, as though they came into being for no other end.
MYSTERY OF THE WHOLE WORLD IN TRAGEDY? because the greatness of soul, which Tragedy shows as oppressed, conflicting, and destroyed is the highest existence in our minds Tragedy forces the mystery upon us, and it makes us realize the worth of what is wasted, and that such waste of potential greatness, nobility of soul is truly the tragedy of human existence Out of all of this, a tragic pattern emerges.
A Man of High Estate A Flaw in Character Intrusion of Time and a Sense of Urgency Misreadings And Rationalizations Murder, Exile, Alienation of Enemies and Allies Gradual Isolation of the Tragic Hero Mobilization of the Opposition Tragic Recognition of the Flaw by the Tragic Hero: too late Last, Courageous Attempt to Restore Lost Honor/Greatness Audience Recognizes Potential for Greatness Death of the Tragic Hero Restoration of Order
First of all, in Shakespearean tragedy, we will be dealing with a man of high estate: a king, a prince, a general, etc. Normally, we will hear about him from others before he makes an entrance in the play. Often, this is where we are given the first impression of the greatness of the tragic hero through the eyes of others.
Within the first two acts or so, we will become aware of a driving force within the hero that is almost, if not entirely, obsessive in nature. We will also witness the nature of the inner torment he goes through as he follows his obsession. We see both Macbeth's potential for greatness and his obsessive ambition.
As the inner and outer conflicts the hero faces as he pursues his course intensify, we see time becoming more and more important. A sense of urgency develops with the plot and the conflict that not only creates tension, but also creates the effect of a kind of steam-rolling inevitability regarding the hero's fall that he has put into motion himself. The pace and urgency generally pick up significantly in the third act. Contributing to, and furthering the obsession and the control of the tragic flaw are misreadings, supernatural suggestion, and accident or chance.
Things happen a split second too late: the hero operates on what he believes to be the case rather than what he actually knows to be the case. Soon they are one and the same thing to him. As the flaw and the misreadings continue, new conflicts and complications arise which bring about the death or gradual alienation of all forms of support for the hero By the end, the hero must face the opposing forces and the responsibility for his actions alone.
What we see during this process of alienation and isolation is suffering, sleeplessness, rage, confusion, hallucination, and violence as the internal conflicts intensify to an almost unbearable pitch. At some point in the play, the opposing forces will begin to mobilize against the hero to bring the tragedy to its conclusion.
Often the hero is confronted by an enemy in the fifth act who has good reason to seek his death (Macduff in Macbeth). At about this point in the play, the hero will realize the error (often a misreading of people/events) that is bringing about his fall. Knowing that he alone is to blame, he alone has erred, and accepting it is absolutely necessary in Shakespearean tragedy, and is called Tragic Recognition.
Tragic recognition inevitably takes place when there is no chance/time to correct the error: it is too late. Once recognition occurs, death speedily follows. Usually, the hero will provide us with a particularly moving display of courage or at least nobility of heart.
With this kind of display, we are left with the feeling that indeed Macbeth was a monster who should have been destroyed, accompanied by a kind of melancholy recognition on our parts that he also had greatness in him: nobility, strength, courage. If only those qualities could have been re- directed--if only he hadn't made those mistakes. And we can say, good, he's gone-- but what a waste.