Receptive vs. Productive Skills Receptive (passive)skills: (listening and reading) learners do not need to produce language, they receive and understand it. Productive (active) skills (speaking and writing) learners produce language
sender (encoder, writer, speaker) (encod ing) TEXT messag e (decod - ing) receiver (decoder, reader, listener) Process of Reading/Listening
Structure of the module. Purposes of reading/listening Reading/Listening skills Selecting a texts Reading/Listening activities and techniques Designing reading/listening activities
What is reading/listening? a process of receiving, decoding and interpreting the meaning of what you heard/read
What do we read? fiction (novels, stories) periodicals (newspapers, magazines) poems ads recipes, menus documents invitations reviews maps, timetables, public signs, traffic schedules messages, letters, faxes biographies
What do we listen to? news instructions announcements TV/radio lectures/speeches songs weather forecast conversations/interviews
Why do we read/listen? to get information to follow instructions to keep in touch for pleasure/enjoyment for citizenship (laws, constitution, documents) for survival (announcements, instructions)
Ways of reading/listening. ReadingListening Reading for general information(gist)/ Skimming Reading for specific information/ Scanning Reading for details/Intensive reading Listening for general information(gist) Listening for specific information Listening for details
Reading skills required for a competent reader/listener. Reading/List ening for gist Reading/List ening for details Reading/ Listening for specific info Study skills 2, 5, 11(R), 12 (L), 3, 8, 13, 14 (R), 15, 16 41, 6, 7, 9, 10, 17
Text selection. Length, language (unknown vocabulary/complicat ed structures), visual clues, topic, style, terms, abbreviations Length, speed, accent, language (unknown vocabulary/complicat ed structures), noise, number of speakers, socio-cultural context, number of speakers What makes a text difficult/easy?
Questions that you ask when selecting a text. SuitabilityIs the text relevant to students needs, interests, age, level, background knowledge? Is it informative/challenging? Does the text fit into syllabus and course book? Can it provide the development of the required skills? Comprehensi bility/Reada bility Isnt the text too long? How fluently are they speaking? Are there many unknown words and complicated grammar structures? ExploitabilityWhat skills can be developed through it? Does it provide basis for integration?
Methodological framework for designing reading/listening activities. StageAim Techniques Pre- listening to prepare learners motivationally, linguist-ly and conceptually Asking/answeri ng questions Matching Paraphrasing Quiz While- listening to provide opportunities for learners to develop reading/listening skills Answering questions Completing Matching Multiple-choice Gap-filling T/F statements Picture completion Paragraphing Outlining Miming Labeling Post- listening to provide opportunities to use language and content of the text creatively and communicatively (integration of reading/listening into productive skills – writing and speaking) Simulation (S) Discussion (S) Essay-writing (W) Story- telling/writing (S/W) Describing (S/W) Letter-writing (W) Problem solving (S) Role-play (S)
Materials design format. a)Compile the rationale describe your target group (age, language level, interests & preferences, background knowledge) identify students' problems & difficulties with reading/listening provide a written explanation of the text choice (This text is comprehensible or readable/ suitable/exploitable because…) explain possible application of the text in the classroom b)Design reading/listening activities related to the text state objectives for reading/listening materials (what 2-3 skills are you going to develop?)
Materials design format for Final Assignment Activities in the form of instructions Techniques used Pre- reading/listening activities While- reading/listening activities Post- reading/listening activities