Презентация по предмету "Иностранный язык" на тему: "Welcome to Astrakhan! Работа выполнена: учителем английского языка ОГОШИ «Школа одаренных детей им. А.П. Гужвина» г. Астрахани Авдеевой Антониной Викторовной.". Скачать бесплатно и без регистрации. — Транскрипт:
Welcome to Astrakhan! Работа выполнена: учителем английского языка ОГОШИ «Школа одаренных детей им. А.П. Гужвина» г. Астрахани Авдеевой Антониной Викторовной.
Each city has its history. At present, Astrakhan which appears in the mouth of the river Volga in the south of Russia, again acquires its significance. There are places on the Earth where the secret projects of Nature acquire their unique expression. This is the place where the main river of Russia flows into the mysterious Caspian Sea. Starting with the Valdai Uplands, the Volga gets 200 long and short tributaries. And in the Caspian Lowland it branches into a great number of large and small rivers which irrigate half-deserts and steppes: there are 800 Estuaries in the place where the Volga flows into the Caspian Sea. Astrakhan region is really unique. Intense heat of the deserts is relived by the coolness of the rivers. There are lots of numerous lakes and small rivers. It is the land of grass and forests where white willows and black poplars prevail. Boundless plains are interrupted by mysterious hills. In the North of Astrakhan region, at the foot of ancient mountain, the Great Bogdo, lies the world famous salt lake Baskunchak. The Bogdo-Baskunchak Reverse is situated here. If one happens to visit Astrakhan in January, one will be amazed at the sight of absolutely not typical for the southern region: the climate is sharp continental here, which means the winter frosts are follwed by hot summer.
The history of Astrakhan dates back to ancient times. During not one millennium the Sarmation gold was kept in the depth of Astrakhan soil. Today the precious evidence of the past amazes the visitors of the Local Lore Museum. Depicted in gold, the intricate images of nomadic life – lions and gryphons- the animal style of these decorations – have a ring of romantic legends of Sarmation tribes who left the traces of their culture in the Lower Volga.
In the XII century a large trade center – Sarai batu – the capital of the Golden Horde – rose up in the Lower Volga. It attracted the merchants from the most far-away countries and was famous For its palaces and mosques. Time has taken everything, but the ruins can be read as a thrilling book.
The city of Hadzhi-Tarkhan, the center of the Astrakhan khanate which had detached from the Golden Horde, rose up on the right bank of the Volga. It was the historical predecessor of Astrakhan. In different years it had different names: Astrakhan, Gitorkhan, Tsirokhan. There is a legend of the tribes of Ases, who received from the government the tarkhans permissions to trade. There is another legend of the beautiful Astra, the daughter of an honorable khan.
Since the times of the first civilizations the Lower Volga has been the place of the cross-roads. The Great Silk Way connected the main cultural regions of Europe and Asia. In 1556 the Tsar Ivan the Terrible finally established his political influence on the Volga and on the south-eastern boundaries of Russia, having attached to it the Lower Volga and the capital of Astrakhan khanate – Hadzhi-Tarkhan.
In 1558 a wooden citadel was erected on the left bank of the Volga. It was a starting point of Astrakhan. In 1569 the wooden fortresses could resist the siege of the Turkish and Tatar troops. The strategic interests of Russia in the South- East demanded further fortification of Astrakhan.
The tower Krasniye Vorota (Beautiful gates) was constructed as headquartes and was meant circular defence. The stone citadel (the Kremlin) was being build since 1582 to It was erected on the bank of the river Volga by the architect from Moscow – Mikhail Viliyaminov and Dei Gubasty. All the towers of the Kremlin were divided into several levels which were connected by the staircases inside the walls. Today the Kremlin of Astrakhan is considered to be an outstanding monument of Russian architecture and fortification of the XVI century.
A bell tower, 80 meters high and the Uspensky Cathedral are the most beautiful parts of the Kremlin.
Astrakhan Kremlin hasnt lost its spiritual significance nowadys.
In the XVIIth century Astrakhan had large trade and handicraft colonies from India, Central Asia, Iran. Places, where they traded in town, still exist. The development of shipbuilding started in the 18 th century. Peter the Great had contacts with the best specialist in the shipbuilding industry – the Netherlands. In the 19 th century Astrakhan was famous for its activities of Partnership of Weiner beer –brewing factories in Astrakhan who produced beer brands well-known in Europe as Bohemia, Bavarian, Munich and others.
Astrakhan natural recourses Astrakhan gas condensate field is one of the largest in European part of Russia. An entire oil and gas province has been explored at shallow depth in vicinity of the coastline of the northern part of The Caspian sea.
The unique salt lake Baskunchak is situated in Astrakhan region. The Baskunchak salt field has been evolved for 100 years. Salt is extracted in an open-cut mining manner. It will provide salt for the 36 years. Oil and gas industry occupies the leading position the economy of the region. The largest in Europe sulfur and gas condensate field with producing and processing complex of Astrakhangasprom is situated here.
The shipbuilding and ship repairing are 2 the most dynamically developed industries in the region. The food industry is connected with food and vegetable industry, meat and dairy products, salt production.
About 30 fish species are of commercial importance. Stock of Caspian sturgeons (beluga, stellate, sterlet) is unique.
Chemical industry has a wide range of products: fiberglass, glass-fiber fabric, medical cork, paint and vanish, roof coating.