Презентация на тему: " МОУ АСОШ 2 г. Андреаполя Тверской области НИКИФОРОВА Е.Б., учитель английского языка. 2010." — Транскрипт:
МОУ АСОШ 2 г. Андреаполя Тверской области НИКИФОРОВА Е.Б., учитель английского языка. 2010
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Audio-lingual Language Method Community Language Learning Communicative Language Teaching Task-based Learning Advantages Disadvantages The teaching wont be efficient if you ignore the English levels and the situations of the students and just use one of the methods mechanically. Regardless of the method, motivation is the most important aspect in FLT.
Motivation plays a crucial role in foreign language learning. It can influence the rate and success of learning.
Motivation is what drives learners to achieve a goal, and a key factor determining success or failure in language learning. Extrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation (hyper reference) comes from outside the classroom and the learning experience (to get a good job, use English for travelling, to get a good mark). Intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation (hyper reference) happens as a result of what goes on in the classroom, what the students do and experience and what the teacher does.
Primary students are all seemingly eager and energetic. Most teens are completely negative about their learning. Many things are beyond our control as language teachers: home background, physical tiredness, events in the personal life, health, previous educational experience, personality, the onset of adolescence. Nevertheless, in many cases the explanation of why the smile disappears from the faces of some students may indeed lie in their experience of their English classes, in how they are organized.
The proper teaching method The practical teaching materials and academic challenges The relationship between the teacher and students Professional feedback of classroom management Promotion of good group dynamic and communication
A relatively small number of students get a sense of intrinsic satisfaction from learning English. For the vast majority of people, language is not very interesting, and it is unlikely to spark and to sustain motivation. Using games, songs and puzzles in the class for younger students have a positive impact in raising the motivation of the pupils – but the effect is usually temporary, and once they return to normal classroom work, the effect wears off. In general, the learners natural interest is not, therefore, something which we can rely on to generate sustained motivation in language learning.
Aware of these facts, many teachers, and whole educational systems, turn to a second source of motivation, extrinsic reward, as a means of motivating students.extrinsic reward For the failing student to get rewards, it does not take long to work out because there is always someone else who gets the rewards – no matter how hard he or she works. In this case, the reward system itself can be demotivating for the weaker students. The increase in the motivation of the better students is more or less proportional to the decrease in motivation of the weaker students.
As human beings, we generally like what we do well, and are therefore more likely to do it again, and put in more effort. If we put in more effort, we generally get better, and so this sustains our motivation. Feelings of being able to do something and feelings of sustained motivation can therefore be linked into an upward spiral which causes us to commit ourselves to what are we doing and to improve. is under-exploited source of motivation in language teaching
Few people like to fail and we generally avoid circumstances in which we anticipate failure. In the classroom, this can mean that students who develop an image of themselves as no good at English will simply avoid situations which tell them what they already know – that they arent any good at English. Feelings of failure, particularly early on in a students school career, can therefore lead to a downward spiral of a self- perception of low ability – low motivation – low effort – low achievement – low motivation – low achievement, and so on. It is the existence of these upward and downward spirals in the motivation-ability relationship that explains a situation commonly found by teachers. In many classes where there are differing levels of student ability, the gap between the weaker students and the stronger students appears to get wider and wide over time.
The attempt by some students to avoid recurring failure suggests that we need to rethink some of the beliefs that we may have about them. It is their sense of self-esteem that is at stake here. By pretending that they arent interested and dont want to learn, they can protect themselves from seeing themselves as failure. For many students, the spiral will have begun long before, as they learned to see themselves as failures, and then began to engage in various kinds of avoidance strategies – sitting at the back of the class, choosing a seat where they wouldnt be noticed, misbehaving, pretending illnesses at crucial moments such as tests, and blaming failure on the teacher or the school or other students.
We shouldnt underestimate the importance of self-esteem and a sense of confidence in language learning as crucial factors affecting motivation. For the failing student, in particular, it is important that we try to develop their sense of success and a feeling that they can do something, rather than a feeling than they cant. We need to be sensitive to the psychology of language learning. When we plan a lesson, devise a test, or use a particular type of exercise, we need to ask ourselves a very important question: how will the weaker students feel if they cant do this? There is a psychology involved in everything we do in the classroom, and that this is concerned with the students feelings of success/failure, high/low self-esteem, high/low confidence and this has a direct impact on motivation.
Viewed in this way, we maybe able to understand some of the reasons why, over time, motivation may fail. Where we see students beginning to fail and beginning to lose motivation, one route to repairing the situation may lie in choosing tasks which we believe the students can do, in order to develop a sense of competence and confidence. It also suggests that all students need to feel a sense of progress and that their efforts actually lead to results.
work well for student motivation. Students love getting a piece of candy from the teacher's candy jar, or even a day of no homework because of good classroom behavior. Student motivation can be achieved simply when the teacher gives excellent marks, it increases their sense of self-worth.
Praising a student for positive efforts the teacher makes in the classroom encourages learning. Through praise, a student will understand that he or she is on the right path. More often than not, praise will make the student continue to do a good job. Praise Enthusiasm Positive environment Rewards Positive feedback a few ways a teacher can help stimulate student motivation
A teacher commending a student for a job well done can greatly motivate a student. By giving positive feedback, a teacher can let a student know that they are doing well and can also suggest how a student can improve on any weaknesses. Through feedback, a student will understand what the teacher expects.
1. Experiment, take risks. Vary the kinds of things you do in the classroom. See what different students respond to best. For example, try short stories, films, classroom drama, songs, projects, grammar exercises, dictations,… 2. Choose larger tasks. Chose tasks that give students more psychological space to plan their own work, set their own pace, make their own decisions about how and what they do. For example, process writing and simulations.
3. Choose open-ended tasks. Tasks that different people can respond to in different ways, where the absence of a single right answer means that everybodys work can be valued. For example, making posters, writing poems, creating designs and describing them. 4. Provide choice. If people are involved in deciding what to do, they are usually more committed to it. Instead of saying do this, say you can choose exercise 3, 5 or 9. Or if youd like to do something else, ask me. 5. Involve students in classroom decision- making. Many of the decisions that teachers make can often be shared with the students, without any risks to the course as whole. You might be able to share decisions about when homework is set, how long they will spend on a particular task, what they will do next lesson, and so on.
6. Find out what students think. Find out if students think they need more practice, if they have suggestions of their own, if they find things easy or difficult, boring or interesting. You could place a suggestion box in your class, or write an open-ended letter that students could complete with their ideas, or devise short questionnaires. 7. Think about how you give feedback and what you give feedback on. If you can identify students who are beginning to sink, try to identify aspects that you can praise and encourage. Instead of just giving a low mark, explain to the students, in concrete terms, what they could do to improve it next time.
8. Communicate a sense of optimism in learning. Communicate a belief that everyone can learn. Encourage students to try, to take risks without fear of losing marks or feeling stupid. Show them how much they have learned. Offer help as they ask for it.
The Communicative Language Teaching Students initiative and creativity are brought about as they are deeply involved in a variety of interesting and challenging learning activities: listening speaking reading thinking writing Click here !
InterestingInteresting (1) tasks (2) (3) tasks InterestingInteresting (1) tasks (2) (3) tasks Crosswords Flashcards Crafts (1) Action songs and (2) games (1) Action songs and (2) games
Using ice-breaking activities to encourage interaction, laughter, and relaxation Role plays to stimulate communicative skills Brainstorming to provoke thinking and imagination Personalizing tasks, i.e. setting tasks that involve sharing of personal experiences and opinions
Give students the following list of superpowers. Put them into groups and have them choose which ONE they would want to have, if given the choice, and WHY: The ability to fly To have X-ray vision To be able to shoot lasers out of their eyes To have super strength To have super speed To be invisible To be invulnerable To be able to control the weather To be able to shape-shift To be able to read minds
Friend A Your friend is really angry with you because of something you said or did. They dont want to be friends with you anymore. But you really value their friendship. Apologize and try to get them to forgive you. Dont give up easily. Friend B You are very angry with your friend because of something they said or did. Tell them how upset you are and that you dont want to be friends anymore.
10 Things 10 things I LOVE. It's so positive, but there are other good variations like: 10 things I hate 10 things I am scared of 10 things I think are disgusting 1) Have students take out pen and paper, and list 10 things they love. Make your own list first and put it on the board as an example. For instance: I love coffee I love autumn I love puppies 2) Once they finish, choose one of the things on your list and explain WHY you love it. For example: "I love autumn because it's not too hot, and it's not too cold. And the leaves change colors and fall to the ground. And it's often windy. And there's a special energy in the air that the other seasons don't have...etc." 3) Have students get into pairs or small groups and explain to each other why they love the things that they love.
Students also benefit when a teacher is motivated to teach. Teachers enthusiasm increases students motivation. When a teacher shows excitement about a subject, he or she can motivate students to learn.
The teacher should make his classes interesting and vivid. The teacher must be fair, treat his students equally and as far as possible understand and act on aspirations of his pupils. The teacher himself must be a model of speaker of the target language. The teacher should be a skillful organizer and good at stimulating the students into the activities of the learning language.