Clock Synchronization When each machine has its own clock, an event that occurred after another event may nevertheless be assigned an earlier time.
Physical Clocks (1) Computation of the mean solar day.
Physical Clocks (2) TAI seconds are of constant length, unlike solar seconds. Leap seconds are introduced when necessary to keep in phase with the sun.
Clock Synchronization Algorithms The relation between clock time and UTC when clocks tick at different rates.
Cristian's Algorithm Getting the current time from a time server.
The Berkeley Algorithm a)The time daemon asks all the other machines for their clock values b)The machines answer c)The time daemon tells everyone how to adjust their clock
Lamport Timestamps a)Three processes, each with its own clock. The clocks run at different rates. b)Lamport's algorithm corrects the clocks.
Example: Totally-Ordered Multicasting Updating a replicated database and leaving it in an inconsistent state.
Global State (1) a)A consistent cut b)An inconsistent cut
Global State (2) a)Organization of a process and channels for a distributed snapshot
Global State (3) b)Process Q receives a marker for the first time and records its local state c)Q records all incoming message d)Q receives a marker for its incoming channel and finishes recording the state of the incoming channel
The Bully Algorithm (1) The bully election algorithm Process 4 holds an election Process 5 and 6 respond, telling 4 to stop Now 5 and 6 each hold an election
Global State (3) d)Process 6 tells 5 to stop e)Process 6 wins and tells everyone
A Ring Algorithm Election algorithm using a ring.
Mutual Exclusion: A Centralized Algorithm a)Process 1 asks the coordinator for permission to enter a critical region. Permission is granted b)Process 2 then asks permission to enter the same critical region. The coordinator does not reply. c)When process 1 exits the critical region, it tells the coordinator, when then replies to 2
A Distributed Algorithm a)Two processes want to enter the same critical region at the same moment. b)Process 0 has the lowest timestamp, so it wins. c)When process 0 is done, it sends an OK also, so 2 can now enter the critical region.
A Toke Ring Algorithm a)An unordered group of processes on a network. b)A logical ring constructed in software.
Comparison A comparison of three mutual exclusion algorithms. Algorithm Messages per entry/exit Delay before entry (in message times) Problems Centralized32Coordinator crash Distributed2 ( n – 1 ) Crash of any process Token ring 1 to 0 to n – 1 Lost token, process crash
The Transaction Model (1) Updating a master tape is fault tolerant.
The Transaction Model (2) Examples of primitives for transactions. PrimitiveDescription BEGIN_TRANSACTIONMake the start of a transaction END_TRANSACTIONTerminate the transaction and try to commit ABORT_TRANSACTIONKill the transaction and restore the old values READRead data from a file, a table, or otherwise WRITEWrite data to a file, a table, or otherwise
The Transaction Model (3) a)Transaction to reserve three flights commits b)Transaction aborts when third flight is unavailable BEGIN_TRANSACTION reserve WP -> JFK; reserve JFK -> Nairobi; reserve Nairobi -> Malindi; END_TRANSACTION (a) BEGIN_TRANSACTION reserve WP -> JFK; reserve JFK -> Nairobi; reserve Nairobi -> Malindi full => ABORT_TRANSACTION (b)
Private Workspace a)The file index and disk blocks for a three-block file b)The situation after a transaction has modified block 0 and appended block 3 c)After committing
Writeahead Log a) A transaction b) – d) The log before each statement is executed x = 0; y = 0; BEGIN_TRANSACTION; x = x + 1; y = y + 2 x = y * y; END_TRANSACTION; (a) Log [x = 0 / 1] (b) Log [x = 0 / 1] [y = 0/2] (c) Log [x = 0 / 1] [y = 0/2] [x = 1/4] (d)
Concurrency Control (1) General organization of managers for handling transactions.
Concurrency Control (2) General organization of managers for handling distributed transactions.
Serializability a) – c) Three transactions T 1, T 2, and T 3 d) Possible schedules BEGIN_TRANSACTION x = 0; x = x + 1; END_TRANSACTION (a) BEGIN_TRANSACTION x = 0; x = x + 2; END_TRANSACTION (b) BEGIN_TRANSACTION x = 0; x = x + 3; END_TRANSACTION (c) Schedule 1x = 0; x = x + 1; x = 0; x = x + 2; x = 0; x = x + 3Legal Schedule 2x = 0; x = 0; x = x + 1; x = x + 2; x = 0; x = x + 3;Legal Schedule 3x = 0; x = 0; x = x + 1; x = 0; x = x + 2; x = x + 3;Illegal (d)