Prewriting – preparation, planning, background research Writing – organizing and outlining material, writing the first draft Revising – reworking and editing the draft, final typing and printing, proofreading
1. Identify and state a purpose of the message 2. Know the audience In one or two sentences or a brief paragraph, state the purpose of the message. If necessary, talk subject over with others. Think over the readers should know or be able to do after reading this message. What is their level of understanding or expertise regarding the subject? Is the aim of the message to persuade them or to accept something? Dont forget their interests and motivations.
3. Define the scope of the subject 4. Think about the wishful result or action Distinguish between information the reader needs to know and information that is merely nice to know. Limit the subject and focus on specific topics. Tell the readers as clearly as possible what is expected or what action is wanted them to take 5. Accuracy Check all the facts from sales figures to the correct spelling of the company name and the name of the person are addressed to.
1. Organize the data and devise a rough plan 2. Outline the writing project Each type of letter has a specific purpose that will determine how to organize and arrange the material for the most effective presentation. The more detailed the outline, the easier it will be to write the letter, or memo. 3. Write the first draft The first draft is a working draft. It should be written quickly without too much thought to elegant expressions or final order or paragraphing. The object is to get the material on paper to make fuller the structure of the outline.
1. Edit and rewrite the draft for clarity, tone, accuracy, brevity 2. Check for grammar and spelling errors and other careless mistakes. 3. Make sure the final copy is neat and free from errors and defects
1. Introduce yourself. 2. State your concern or reason for writing. 3. After the main content of your letter include information on how you can be contacted. 4. The end of the letter is also a place to express gratitude, wish good-luck, or offer sympathy. Think about how you would organize your thoughts if you were speaking rather than writing to the recipient
Write the way you speak. Get rid of stilted phrases. Say because instead of due to the fact that; the information or, if you need to refer to a point, the previous information instead of the aforementioned information. The language of the letter should be adapted to the reader. Use specific examples the reader can relate to. Dont assume that the reader understands the jargon of your trade. Remember, most letters will be read by people that may be unfamiliar with the technical language or jargon used. Clarity is organizing the letter so each paragraph deals with only one main idea and presenting ideas in a logical order. The letter should not be a collection of random ideas. It should be single-minded in its purpose.
It eliminates all unnecessary words. The longer the letter, the more ineffective it becomes. It is better to write a short letter with attachments than a long, detailed one. Short letters are read and remembered; long letters are skimmed and filed. Make sure that all the information the reader needs to know is included. Dont include details that are interesting but not relevant. Use words and phrases that set a positive tone. Words such as failure, you neglected and error tend to distance the reader from the writer. Words such as agreeable, proud and success help create a positive tone.
The last step in writing any business letter is to proofread it. If it is riddled with spelling, grammatical and typographical errors, it will detract from what you are trying to get across. Use specific terms that can be understood. Dont say, The large order that we requested has not arrived. Say, The order for 10,000 basins that we requested on May 3, 20XX, has not arrived as of June 20. Identify names and numbers. Write about what people can count or do. Include what people can see, touch, smell, taste or hear. In other words, make language clear. Make it concrete.
Opening, previous communication Thank you for your (letter) of (date)… Further to your last (letter)… I apologize for not getting in contact with you before now… Thank you for your letter of the (5th of March). With reference to your letter of (23rd March) With reference to your advertisement in («The Times») Спасибо за ваше письмо от (числа) Отвечая на ваше письмо… Я прошу прощения, что до сих пор не написал вам… Спасибо за ваше письмо от 5 Марта Относительно вашего письма от 23 Марта Относительно вашей рекламы в Таймс
Letter writing causes I am writing to enquire about I am writing to apologize for I am writing to confirm I am writing in connection with We would like to point out that… Я пишу вам, чтобы узнать… Я пишу вам, чтобы извиниться за… Я пишу вам, что бы подтвердить… Я пишу вам в связи с … Мы хотели бы обратить ваше внимание на... Requests Could you possibly… I would be grateful if you could … I would like to receive Please could you send me… Не могли бы вы… Я был бы признателен вам, если бы вы... Я бы хотел получить… Не могли бы вы выслать мне…
Bad news informing Unfortunately … I am afraid that … I am sorry to inform you that We regret to inform you that… К сожалению… Боюсь, что… Мне тяжело сообщать вам, но … К сожалению, мы вынуждены сообщить вам о… Changeover to another topic We would also like to inform you... Regarding your question about... In answer to your question (enquiry) about... I also wonder if… Мы так же хотели бы сообщить вам о… Относительно вашего вопроса о… В ответ на ваш вопрос о… Меня также интересует…
Thanks for interest Thank you for your letter of Thank you for enquiring We would like to thank you for your letter of... Спасибо за ваше письмо Спасибо за проявленный интерес… Мы хотели бы поблагодарить вас за… Enclosures We are pleased to enclose... Enclosed you will find... We enclose... Please find attached (for s) Мы с удовольствием вкладываем… В прикрепленном файле вы найдете... Мы прилагаем… Вы найдете прикрепленный файл…