Concession (to express a contrast) but although even though (more emphatic) though (informal, used in everyday speech, can be put at the end of the sentence) He had a good voice but he never sung in public. Although it was hot he wore boots. Even though it was hot he wore boots. He wore boots though it was hot. It was hot. He wore boots, though.
in spite of /despite of + noun/-ing form In spite of/Despite of his talent, he couldnt find a job. He couldnt find a job in spite of/despite of his talent.
in spite of/despite of the fact that In spite of/Despite of the fact that he had a talent, he couldnt get a job.
Clauses of result ( to express result) as a result therefore consequently as a consequence so The hole in the ozone layer is becoming bigger and bigger. As a consequence the Earths temperature is rising at an alarming rate. I was feeling lonely, so I went to visit my friend.
such a/an + adj + singular countable noun Jack is such a good singer that everybody loves him.
such + adj + plural/ uncountable noun They were such nice people that I will never forget their kindness. It was such heavy luggage that we had to pay excess baggage charge at the airport.
such + a lot of + plural/ uncountable noun He has got such a lot of books that he has to buy a new bookcase. There was such a lot of work to do that I couldnt finish on time.
so + adjective/adverb She felt so embarrassed that she blushed. The thief ran so fast that nobody was able to catch him.
so much/little + uncountable noun so many/few + plural noun There was so much smog that I couldnt see the view. Ive got so little money that I cant pay the rent. There were so many mistakes in the book that it had to be reprinted. He had so few plastic cups that he had to go and buy more.
however/nevertheless MIND: a comma is always used after it. He left early.However/Nevertheless, he missed the bus.
while/whereas She is blonde, while /whereas her brother has dark brown hair. yet (formal)/still It was June, yet it was quite cold. My house is old. Still, it is in very good condition.
however/no matter how+ adj/adv+subject+verb We couldnt convince him however/no matter how hard we tried. on the other hand My new house is in a safer area. On the other hand, it is much smaller than my old one.
Clauses of Purpose (to explain why smb does smth) to – infinitive Mary phoned the doctor to make an appointment.
in order to/so as to + infinitive (formal) The editor requested that everyone work overtime in order to meet the newspaper deadline. so that + can/will (present/future reference) Take my number so that you can call me when you get there.
so that + could/would (past reference) He finished his homework early so that he could go out with us. in case + present tense (present/future reference) Take a coat in case it is cold.
in case + past tense (past reference) She had taken her cell phone in case she needed it. MIND: in case is never used with will or would.
for + noun (expresses the purpose of an action) They went to their friends house for dinner. for + ing form (expresses the purpose of smth or its function) Knives are also used for cutting meat.
with a view to + ing form The Richardsons saved money with a view to buying a house.
To express negative purpose: in order not to/so as not to+infinitive He made a list of the things he had to buy so as not to forget anything. prevent + noun/pronoun (+from) + -ing form Violent winds prevented the plane (from) departing.
Clauses of Reason (to express the reason for sth) becauseI was late because I missed the train. as/sinceI wore my coat since it was cold. for (fml)I couldnt meet the manager for he was at the Congress.
the reason for + noun /-ing form The reason for her disappointment was (the fact) that they rejected her proposal. the reason why + clause The reason why she was disappointed was (the fact) that they had rejected her proposal.
because of/on account of/due to + noun No one could work due to the power cut. because of/on account of/due to the fact that + clause She was late due to the fact that she woke up late.
now that + clause Now that she has graduated, she can look for a job.
Clauses of Manner (to express the way in which sth is done/said, etc) to say how sb/sth looks, behaves after the verbswe use be/act/behave as if as though appear/seem/look feel/smell/sound/taste She feels as if she will faint.
to say how sb does sth after other verbswe use as if as though He behaves as though he owns the shop.
when we are talking about an unreal present situation We use as if as though Past tense He acts as if he knew everything (but he doesnt). He behaves as though he were a child (but he isnt).
NOTE! were can be used instead of was in all persons we can use like instead of as if/as though in spoken English He looks like hes going to break down.
Time Clauses time conjunctions to introduce time clauses when/as/while/ before/after/since until/till/whenever as long as by the timeno sooner … than as soon ashardly… when the moment thatonce immediatelythe first/last/next time
time clause main clause Whenever she calls, he pretends not to be at home. main clause time clause He pretends not to be at home whenever she calls.