Презентация на тему: " The great thinkers of the East world Prepared by: Group-106, Yuldasheva Xumora, Aytmuratova Barno, Tursunova Aziza." — Транскрипт:
The great thinkers of the East world Prepared by: Group-106, Yuldasheva Xumora, Aytmuratova Barno, Tursunova Aziza
Abu Ali Ibn Sino Ibn Sīnā studied medicine under a physician named Koushyar. He wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 of his surviving treatises concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine. Abū Alī al-usayn ibn Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā', known as Abū Alī Sīnā (Persian: ابوعلی سینا ) or, more commonly, Ibn Sīnā (Arabic: ابن سینا ), and commonly known in English by his Latinized name Avicenna (Greek: Aβιτζιανός, Abitzianos), (c ) was a Persian polymath and the foremost physician and philosopher of his time. He was also an astronomer, chemist, geologist, logician, paleontologist, mathematician, physicist, poet, psychologist, scientist and teacher. His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine, which was a standard medical text at many medieval universities. The Canon of Medicine was used as a text-book in the universities of Montpellier and Louvain as late as 1650.
Abu Reikhan Beruniy ( ) was a great scientist of Khorezm. He was born in the South Khorezm town of Kyat, which later became part of the Khiva Khanate. A. R. Beruniy was an orphan. He was adopted and brought up by the famous Khorezm scientist of the 10 th -11 th centuries, Abu Nasr b. Irak. Already well-known as a scientist, Al-Beruniy began his career serving in the court of the Khorezm Shah in Kyat. However later he was forced to emigrate to the seaside town of Kabusa in Vashmshir. In 1004, Al-Beruniy returned to Khorezm and worked in the court of Khorezm Shah Mamun in the town of Gurganj until Khorezm of that period was famous for being a place where science and the arts flowered. A group of scientists was organized to work in the court of the Khorezm Shah. Among the members of the group were the scientists Al-Beruniy, Ibn Irak, and Ibn Sino; the philosophers Abu Sahl Masihiy and Abul Khaiyr Khamar; the poet Abu Mansur as - Salibiy, and others. In 1017 Khorezm was occupied by the troops of Sultan Mahmud Gazneviy, who captured Al-Beruniy and took him to his capital, Gazna. There, AI-Beruniy stayed to the end of his days. He only returned to visit his hometown, Khorezm, in 1025.
Al-Beruniy is known under the name Alborona in Western Europe. European scientists believed he was a Spanish monk. Al-Beruniy was the author of more than 150 works. Approximately 30 of them remain today. Mostly his works are on mathematics and astronomy. The most significant, "Memorials to the Past Generations", is a chronology of the religious holidays of many nations, including the Khorezmians. It also deals with the basics of astronomy and astronomic instruments. Beruniy's work "Explanation of Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Indian Sciences by the Great Intellects", which is better known as "India" is a remarkable monument of science and culture. This work is a bona fide encyclopedia of the country. While living among the Indians, Al-Beruniy learned Sanskrit and obtained much information on ethnography, geography, biology, philology, history, and astronomy from Indian scientific sources. He included all this information in his book, "India". "India" was translated into many languages including Uzbek, Russian, French, and English. The treatise has been reprinted many times. Another great work by Beruniy is "Maasud's Canon", dealing with astronomy and mathematics. This work is dedicated to Sultan Maasud, Mahmud Gazneviy's son, who ruled in The treatise consists of 11 books, expounding on the history and traditions of various nations; information on geography, mathematics, astronomy, and astrology; and comments by medieval scientists. A few of his Arabic manuscripts have survived. These books were published in Arabic, Uzbek, and Russian. Unlike other works by Beruniy, his "Basics of Astral Science" was written in two languages: Arabic and Persian. It contains 530 questions and answers on geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, geography, natural astrology, and history. The great scientist and major public figure, Al-Beruniy, has significantly contributed to the development of the science and culture of the World.
, Abū Abdallāh Muammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī Abū Abdallāh Muammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī earlier transliterated as Algoritmi or Algaurizin, (c. 780 – c. 850) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer andgeographer du ring the Abbasid Caliphate, a scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.PersianmathematicianastronomergeographerAbbasid CaliphatescholarHouse of WisdomBaghdad In the twelfth century, Latin translations of his work on the Indian numerals introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world. His Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic. In Renaissance Europe, he was considered the original inventor of algebra, although it is now known that his work is based on older Indian or Greek sources. He revisedPtolemy's Geography and wrote on astronomy and astrology.Latinhis workIndian numeralsdecimalpositional number systemWestern worldCompendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancinglinearquadratic equationsalgebraPtolemyGeography Some words reflect the importance of al-Khwarizmi's contributions to mathematics. "Algebra" is derived from al-jabr, one of the two operations he used to solve quadratic equations. Algorism and algorithm stem from Algoritmi, the Latin form of his name. His name is also the origin of (Spanish) guarismo and of (Portuguese) algarismo, both meaning digit.quadratic equationsAlgorismalgorithmLatinSpanishPortuguesealgarismodigit
Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh (Chagatay: میرزا محمد طارق بن شاہ رخ, Persian: میرزا محمد تراغای بن شاہ رخ ) better known as Ulugh Beg ( الغ بیگ ) (March 22, 1394 in Sultaniyeh, Persia – October 27, 1449, Samarkand) was a Timuridruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician and sultan. His commonly known name is not truly a personal name, but rather a moniker, which can be loosely translated as "Great Ruler" or "Patriarch Ruler" and was the Turkic equivalent ofTimur's Perso-Arabic title Amīr-e Kabīr.  His real name was Mīrzā Mohammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrokh. Ulugh Beg was also notable for his work in astronomy-related mathematics, such as trigonometry and spherical geometry. He built the great Ulugh Beg Observatory in Samarkand between 1424 and It was considered by scholars to have been one of the finest observatories in the Islamic world at the time and the largest in Central Asia.  He built the Ulugh Beg Madrasah (1417–1420) in Samarkand and Bukhara, transforming the cities into cultural centers of learning in Central Asia.  He was also a mathematics genius of the 15th century albeit his mental aptitude was perseverance rather than any unusual endowment of intellect.  His Observatory is situated in Samarkand which is in Uzbekistan. He ruled Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Kazakhstan and most of Afghanistan for almost half a century from 1411 to 1449.ChagatayPersianSultaniyehPersiaSamarkandTimuridastronomermathematiciansultanmonikerTurkicTimur Mīrzātrigonometryspherical geometryUlugh Beg Observatory Ulugh Beg MadrasahBukhara