Презентация на тему: " Los Angeles World Airports Aircraft Surface Movement Program Anthony Laughlin Superintendent of Operations Los Angeles International Airport (310) 646-4265." — Транскрипт:
Los Angeles World Airports Aircraft Surface Movement Program Anthony Laughlin Superintendent of Operations Los Angeles International Airport (310)
Introduction To Aircraft Surface Movement Program Any person who taxis, tows, communicates on aviation VHF frequencies, or is otherwise involved in the movement of aircraft at LAX must successfully complete the Aircraft Surface Movement Program.
Class length: 3 hours Test: 30 question multiple choice minimum passing score is 90% All persons who successfully complete this program will be rebadged. The replacement badge will include the Aircraft Movement Icon. Introduction To Aircraft Surface Movement Program
Introduction To Aircraft Surface Movement UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE: LAWA AIRFIELD OPERATIONS ESCORT IS REQUIRED FOR ALL AIRCRAFT SURFACE MOVEMENT OPERATIONS BY NON-FLIGHT CREW PERSONNEL, INVOLVING THE CROSSING OF ANY RUNWAY AT LAX
Training Goals 1. To prevent incursions on movement areas 2. To provide familiarization with airfield layout, signs, markings, and lighting 3. To help standardize radio communication and Air Traffic Control procedures
Aircraft Surface Movement Program SECTION 1: LAX Airfield Familiarization SECTION 2:Airfield Signs, Surface Markings, and Lighting SECTION 3: Air Traffic Control Procedures, Instructions, and Radio Phraseology
Any occurrence at an airport involving an aircraft, vehicle, person, or object on the ground that creates a collision hazard or results in loss of separation with an aircraft taking off or intending to takeoff, landing or intending to land. Runway Incursions The FAA defines a Runway Incursion as:
LAX Airfield Familiarization Movement Areas consist of runways, taxiways, taxilanes and other areas of an airport which are used for taxiing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft. Section 1
LAX Airfield Familiarization Rectangular-shaped, paved surfaces on an airport, designed for the landing or takeoff of airplanes. Runways
Runway Designations Based on a runways magnetic heading, using the 360 degree compass system Runways may be used in two opposite directions All runways have TWO runway designations
Runway Designations The pictured runway is oriented in the north-south direction The pictured runway would be designated Runway 18/36
Runway Designations What is the magnetic alignment of the pictured runway? What is the runway designation?
Runway Designations What is the magnetic alignment of the pictured runway? What is the runway designation?
Ramp/Apron Areas Ramp/Apron Areas consist of the following: Maintenance Areas Terminal Gates Cargo/Freight Parking Gates
Ramp/Apron Areas Ramps and Aprons are aircraft parking areas designed for the purpose of loading/unloading or servicing of aircraft Ramps and Aprons are non-movement areas Ramp/Apron areas are not controlled by FAA Air Traffic Control
Ramp/Apron Areas Gate areas of terminal buildings are an example of a Ramp/Apron Area Wing Clearance Lines
Runway Surface Markings And Lighting Runway surface markings are white Section 2
Runway Surface Markings And Lighting The runway centerline is a broken white stripe which indicates the center of the runway and provides alignment guidance for aircraft.
Runway Surface Markings And Lighting The runway edge-line is an unbroken white stripe indicating the edges of the runway, and the edges of the full-strength pavement.
Runway Surface Markings And Lighting Runway threshold markings identify the beginning of the runway which is available for landing.
Runway Lighting Runway lighting is white in color Elevated edge-lights identify the runway edges during adverse visibility conditions Runway edge-lights identify the sides of the runway Runway lighting is white in color
Runway Surface Markings And Lighting Runway lighting is white in color In-pavement Runway Centerline Lights identify the runway centerline during adverse visibility conditions
Runway Surface Markings And Lighting Runway lighting is white in color Touchdown Zone Lights indicate the first 3,000 feet of the runway, beginning at the threshold
Taxiway Surface Markings ALL taxiway surface markings are yellow. Taxiway centerline markings indicate the center of the taxiway.
Taxiway Surface Markings ALL taxiway surface markings are yellow. Double yellow taxiway edge-lines indicate the edges of the taxiway as well as the edge of full- strength pavement
Taxiway Surface Markings ALL taxiway surface markings are yellow. Taxiway Shoulder Markings consist of transverse stripes extending from the taxiway edge markings into paved areas which are not intended for aircraft use Note: At LAX, paved areas which are unsuitable for aircraft may be painted green.
Taxiway Surface Markings Hold Lines are located on taxiways which intersect runways All aircraft and vehicles must hold short of the runway at the hold line.
Hold Lines are located at the intersection of a taxiway and a runway. Aircraft/vehicles must hold on the solid side of the hold line. Taxiway Surface Markings
Taxiway Lighting Taxiway edge-lights are blue in color Taxiway edge lighting identifies the edge of a taxiway during periods of darkness or reduced visibility.
Taxiway Lighting In-pavement Taxiway centerline lights are green in color
Taxiway Lighting In-pavement taxiway centerline lights identify the taxiway centerline during periods of darkness or reduced visibility
Taxiway Lighting Elevated Runway Guard Lights consist of two alternating, flashing yellow lights Two Types: Elevated and In-Pavement Runway Guard Lights
Taxiway Lighting In-pavement Runway Guard Lights consist of flashing yellow lights, which extend across the taxiway, parallel to the hold line Runway Guard Lights
Taxiway Lighting In-pavement Runway Guard Lights Extend across hold line
Taxilane Surface Markings Taxilanes have either solid white or yellow lead-in lines
Ramp/Apron Area Surface Markings Wing-clearance lines are white or red.
Five types of airfield signage: Airfield Signs and Surface Markings Mandatory Instruction Sign Location Sign Direction Sign B 25L-7R A Checkpoint 3 MIL Information Sign Destination Sign
Airfield Signs and Surface Markings Surface painted signs correspond to mounted signs
Airfield Signs and Surface Markings It Is MANDATORY That You Receive INSTRUCTIONS From FAA Air Traffic Control, Before Passing ANY Mandatory Instruction Sign Mandatory Instruction Signs are usually co-located with Taxiway Location Signs
Instrument Landing System (ILS) Critical Area Mandatory Instruction Signs Airfield Signs and Surface Markings
LAWA Airfield Operations escort is currently required for ALL Aircraft Surface Movement Operations, conducted by non flight-crew personnel, which involve the crossing of runways at LAX Any aircraft operator who is Confronted with a Mandatory Instruction Sign MUST conduct any operation in strict accordance with instructions from FAA Air Traffic Control
Failure to comply with these procedures may result in a Runway Incursion, aircraft collision and/or loss of airfield driving privileges
Taxiway Location Signs have a black background with yellow inscriptions Airfield Signs and Surface Markings
Taxiway Direction Signs have a yellow background with black inscriptions and arrows.
Airfield Signs and Surface Markings Taxiway Location Signs are often co-located with Taxiway Direction Signs.
Information signs have a yellow background with black inscriptions. This type of sign displays advisory information.
Airfield Signs and Surface Markings Destination Signs have a yellow background with black inscriptions and arrows pointing in the general direction of a specific location on the airfield.
Airfield Signs and Surface Markings Taxiway hold markings are located where two taxiways intersect.
Restricted/Closed Areas Certain types of operations or aircraft may not use a Restricted Area. No aircraft operations may be conducted in a Closed Area.
Restricted/Closed Areas Restricted/Closed Areas are marked with orange cones, delineators, and/or standing red lights placed along the perimeter of the area.
Restricted/Closed Areas Aircraft inadvertently proceeding into a closed or restricted area may result in loss of life and substantial property damage.
Review of Taxiway/Runway Intersection Markings, Signs and Lighting
Air Traffic Control Procedures, Instructions, and Phraseology Transmitting on Aviation VHF Radio Section 3 1. Verify correct frequency 2. Briefly monitor to make sure frequency is clear 3. Check position of transmitter selector
Air Traffic Control Procedures, Instructions, and Phraseology Section 3 Who you are Aircraft type wing span Where you are on the airport What you are requesting, or intending to do How youre going to do it 4. Communicate clearly and concisely:
Phraseology Use correct aviation phraseology to transmit messages which are clear and concise Acknowledge - Let me know that you have received my message Advise Intentions - Tell me what you plan to do Affirmative - Yes
Phraseology Confirm - My version is… is that correct? Correction - An error has been made in the transmission and the correct version follows Go Ahead - Proceed with your message. Not to be used for any other purpose. Hold - Stop where you are Hold Short Of … - Proceed to, but stop before reaching a specific point
Phraseology Negative - No, or Permission not granted, or That is not correct Proceed - You are authorized to begin or continue moving Read Back - Repeat my message back to me Roger - I have received all of your last transmission. (It should not be used to answer a question requiring a yes or no answer)
Phraseology Say Again - Used to request a repeat of the last transmission. Usually specifies transmission or portion thereof not understood or received Stand By - Means the controller or pilot must pause for a few seconds, usually to attend to other duties of a higher priority. If the delay is lengthy, the caller should reestablish contact.
Phraseology Taxi To… - Taxi to an airport location. This instruction is not a clearance to taxi on or across the referenced airport location. Unable - Indicates inability to comply with a specific instruction, request or clearance Verify - Request confirmation of information, for example, Verify cleared to cross runway two five right. Wilco - I have received your message, understand it,and will comply with it
Phonetic Alphabet A standardized aviation phonetic alphabet has been adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and is used by Air Traffic Controllers worldwide.
Crossing Runways 1. Initial call to Ground Control 2. When holding at specified taxi position, ground control instructs aircraft to contact Tower 3. Tower Control Instructions Hold short Cross both runways Cross one, hold short of the other
LAX Air Traffic Control VHF Radio Frequencies Automatic Terminal Information Service Ground Control- North Complex Ground Control- South Complex Tower- North Complex Tower- South Complex Metering LAX Airline Operated Ramp Tower VHF Radio Frequencies Alaska Ramp Tower (Taxilane D-10) American Ramp Tower (Taxilane C-10) Delta Ramp Tower (Taxilanes C-8 and C-9) United Ramp Tower (Taxilane C-7) United Ramp Tower (Taxilane C-6) LAX VHF Radio Frequencies
Proper Radio Procedures Push back 1. Name of facility being contacted 2. Aircraft call sign 3. Aircraft position 4. Requested operation Taxi 1. Advise ramp tower, if applicable, when ready to move forward 2. Contact ground control when ready to tow or taxi 3. Read back all hold short instructions
Preventing Runway Incursions 1. Review all pertinent information prior to conducting an aircraft surface movement operation 2. Use correct communication techniques 3. Maintain a sterile cockpit 4. If you are unsure of your position on the airfield, stop and ask for assistance 5. Continuously monitor the appropriate VHF frequency 6. If you are unsure of any issued instructions, ask for clarification 7. Report any deteriorating/confusing airfield signs, surface markings or lighting to LAX Airfield Operations, or FAA at an appropriate time.
Conclusion Use Safe, Accepted Procedures Follow Standard Guidelines Forethought, Proper Planning And Application Of Established Procedures Lead To Safety
Review/Questions Please forward questions, comments or other input to: Anthony Laughlin Superintendent of Operations Los Angeles International Airport (310)